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Quantifying Path Exploration in the Internet



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IEEE ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING VOL 17 NO 2 APRIL 2009 445 Quantifying Path Exploration in the Internet Ricardo Oliveira Member IEEE Beichuan Zhang Dan Pei and Lixia Zhang Abstract Previous measurement studies have shown the existence of path exploration and slow convergence in the global Internet routing system and a number of protocol enhancements have been proposed to remedy the problem However existing measurements were conducted only over a small number of testing prefixes There has been no systematic study to quantify the pervasiveness of Border Gateway Protocol BGP slow convergence in the operational Internet nor any known effort to deploy any of the proposed solutions In this paper we present our measurement results that identify BGP slow convergence events across the entire global routing table Our data shows that the severity of path exploration and slow convergence varies depending on where prefixes are originated and where the observations are made in the Internet routing hierarchy In general routers in tier 1 Internet service providers ISPs observe less path exploration hence they experience shorter convergence delays than routers in edge ASs prefixes originated from tier 1 ISPs also experience less path exploration than those originated from edge ASs Furthermore our data show that the convergence time of route fail over events is similar to that of new route announcements and is significantly shorter than that of route failures This observation is contrary to the widely held view from previous experiments but confirms our earlier analytical results Our effort also led to the development of a path preference inference method based on the path usage time which can be used by future studies of BGP dynamics Index Terms AS topology completeness Border Gateway Protocol BGP inter domain routing Internet topology I INTRODUCTION T HE Border Gateway Protocol BGP is the routing protocol used in the global Internet A number of previous analytical and



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