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Rotational actuators based on carbon nanotubes



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letters to nature agreement with the recent results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe WMAP which indicate that the first onset of star formation most probably occurred at redshifts z 15 20 250 Myr after the Big Bang 25 27 The presence of Lya emitting galaxies and luminous quasars at the end of cosmic reionization z 6 0 at a time when the IGM was at least 1 neutral was clearly demonstrated5 28 This epoch of reionization represents a key benchmark in cosmic structure formation indicating the formation of the first luminous structures Detecting a large reservoir of molecular gas in this epoch demonstrates the existence of the requisite fuel for active star formation in primeval galaxies The existence of such reservoirs of molecular gas at early times implies that studies of the youngest galaxies will be possible at millimetre and centimetre wavelengths unhindered by obscuration by the neutral IGM A Received 16 May accepted 16 June 2003 doi 10 1038 nature01821 1 Ohta K et al Detection of molecular gas in the quasar BR1202 0725 at redshift z 4 69 Nature 382 426 428 1996 2 Omont A et al Molecular gas and dust around a radio quiet quasar at redshift 4 69 Nature 382 428 431 1996 3 Carilli C L et al High resolution imaging of molecular line emission from high redshift QSOs Astron J 123 1838 1846 2002 4 Carilli C L Blain A W Centimeter searches for molecular line emission from high redshift galaxies Astrophys J 569 605 610 2002 5 Fan X et al A survey of z 5 7 quasars in the sloan digital sky survey II Discovery of three additional quasars at z 6 Astron J 125 1649 1659 2003 6 White R L Becker R H Fan X Strauss M A Probing the ionization state of the universe at z 6 Astron J in the press 7 Willott C J McLure R L Jarvis M J A 3 109 M black hole in the quasar SDSS J1148 5251 at z 6 41 Astrophys J 587 L15 L18 2003 8 Loeb A Barkana R The reionization of the Universe by the first stars and quasars Annu Rev Astron Astrophys 39 19 66 2000 9 Bertoldi F et al Dust emission



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