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Photosynthesis CHAPTER 10 Autotrophs producers produce organic materials from inorganic Almost all plants What are these photoautotrophs a Plants c Unicellular protist 10 m e Purple sulfur 1 5 m bacteria b Multicellular alga d Cyanobacteria 40 m Heterotrophs consumers obtain organic material from other organisms Leaves main site Oak tree Mesophyll of leaf inner tissue Cells with chloroplasts Stomata pores in leaf epidermis Open during day O2 and H20 vapor out CO2 in Stoma in a tomato leaf shown via colorized scanning electron microscope image CHLOROPLASTS Chlorophyll green pigment of chloroplast Absorbs light energy 30 40 chloroplasts cell 500 000 mm2 Most in mesophyll Chloroplasts in moss cells Chloroplasts enclosed by double membrane One chloroplast with chlorophyll Mesophyll cell with chloroplasts Within chloroplast Thylakoids Membranous sacs Chlorophyll in thylakoid membrane Granum thylakoid stack Thylakoid space Stroma dense fluid Other organisms with chloroplasts Chloroplasts evolved from photosynthetic cyanobacteria living inside a eukaryotic cell Photosynthesis converts light E to chemical E CO2 H2O light O2 C6H12O6 Energy stored in the bonds of sugar Endergonic or exergonic Reactants Products Chemical energy Inorganic Organic THE LIGHT REACTION Two stages of photosynthesis Light reaction Calvin Cycle The light reactions convert solar energy to chemical energy FYI The chemical energy at this step is in the form of ATP and NADPH 10 5 nm 10 3 nm 103 nm 1 nm Gamma X rays rays UV 106 nm Infrared 1m 109 nm Microwaves 103 m Radio waves Visible light 380 450 500 Shorter wavelength Higher energy 550 600 650 700 750 nm Longer wavelength Lower energy Visible light Can detect with human eye 380 750 nm wavelength Photons have fixed amount of energy Amount of energy inversely related to wavelength Visible light drives photosynthesis Light Reflected light Chloroplast Absorbed light Granum Transmitted light Which wavelengths support photosynthesis Why are many plant leaves

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