UVA PHYS 635 - FREE, DAMPED, AND FORCED OSCILLATIONS (18 pages)

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FREE, DAMPED, AND FORCED OSCILLATIONS



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FREE, DAMPED, AND FORCED OSCILLATIONS

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Pages:
18
School:
University Of Virginia
Course:
Phys 635 - Harmonic Motion and the Pendulum

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175 Name Date Partners LAB 11 FREE DAMPED AND FORCED OSCILLATIONS OBJECTIVES To understand the free oscillations of a mass and spring To understand how energy is shared between potential and kinetic energy To understand the effects of damping on oscillatory motion To understand how driving forces dominate oscillatory motion To understand the effects of resonance in oscillatory motion OVERVIEW You have already studied the motion of a mass moving on the end of a spring We understand that the concept of mechanical energy applies and the energy is shared back and forth between the potential and kinetic energy We know how to find the angular frequency of the mass motion if we know the spring constant We will examine in this lab the mass spring system again but this time we will have two springs each having one end fixed on either side of the mass We will let the mass slide on an air track that has very little friction We first will study the free oscillation of this system Then we will use magnets to add some damping and study the motion as a function of the damping coefficient Finally we will hook up a motor that will oscillate the system at practically any frequency we choose We will find that this motion leads to several interesting results including wild oscillations Harmonic motions are ubiquitous in physics and engineering we often observe them in mechanical and electrical systems The same general principles apply for atomic molecular and other oscillators so once you understand harmonic motion in one guise you have the basis for understanding an immense range of phenomena INVESTIGATION 1 FREE OSCILLATIONS An example of a simple harmonic oscillator is a mass m which moves on the x axis and is attached to a spring with its equilibrium position at x 0 by definition When the mass is moved from its equilibrium position the restoring force of the spring tends to bring it back to the equilibrium position The spring force is given by Fspring kx 1 where k is the spring



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