Princeton MAE 345 - Sensors and Actuators (34 pages)

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Sensors and Actuators



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Sensors and Actuators

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Lecture Notes


Pages:
34
School:
Princeton University
Course:
Mae 345 - Microprocessors for Measurement/Control

Unformatted text preview:

Sensors and Actuators Robert Stengel Robotics and Intelligent Systems MAE 345 Princeton University 2013 Biological Antecedents Critical Elements for System Observation and Control Control Effecters Output Sensors Navigation Copyright 2013 by Robert Stengel All rights reserved For educational use only http www princeton edu stengel MAE345 html Biologically Inspired Control Declarative Planning Procedural Formatting Reflexive Control Sensory input Motor output Feedback Control Requires Sensors and Actuators Desirable properties Sensors and actuators have their own dynamic characteristics High bandwidth faster than system to be controlled Accuracy Precision Large dynamic range Sufficient power for control Reliability Low cost Peripheral Sensory and Motor Neurons Synapse chemical or electrical axon dendrite connection Sensory and Motor Signal Paths to the Brain Reflexive response is processed in the spinal roots Declarative and procedural response is processed in the brain Skeletal Muscle Attached to the skeleton to produce motion of limbs torso neck and head Agonist antagonist muscle pairs produce opposing motion End effecter strength depends on lever arm and varies with joint angle Voluntary declarative commands from somatic central nervous system Sensory Neuron Receptors Neuron Receptors corpuscles disks cells muscle spindles generate action potentials that are sensed by the neuron soma Cutaneous and Sub Cutaneous Receptors The Eye Retinal Cross Section Retinal Ganglion Cells Amacrine and Horizontal Cells Rod and Cone Cells Biological Inertial Measurement The Inner Ear Measures linear and angular acceleration Integration with eye motion Actuators Rubbertuator Pneumatic analog of muscle Contraction under pressure Princeton s SLIM Robot 1993 Robot arm Agonist antagonist action produces rotation Hydraulic Actuator Electric Actuator Brushed DC Motor Two pole DC Motor Current flowing through armature generates a magnetic field Permanent magnets torque the armature When



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