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Immunological testing Monoclonal antibodies Serology Quantifying antigen antibody reactions 17 1 Perspective 17 1 Monoclonal Antibodies 17 2 1 Serology Antibodies Antibodies detect and identify antigens 17 3 Quantifying antigen antibody reactions Seroconversion or rise in titer Serial dilutions 17 4 2 Figure 17 2 Quantitation of immunologic tests 17 5 Precipitation reactions Immunodiffusion Immunoelectrophoresis 17 6 3 Figure 17 3 Precipitation reaction 17 7 Figure 17 4 Immunodiffusion 17 8 4 Figure 17 6 Immunoelectrophoresis 17 9 Agglutination reactions Direct agglutination Indirect agglutination Hemagglutination 17 10 5 Direct agglutination Cross linking and lattice formation Antibodies react with particulate antigens red blood cells bacteria fungi Visible clumps Estimate amount of antibody 17 11 Indirect agglutination Soluble antigen is coated onto particles red bood cells latex beads Allow for visible clumps agglutination 17 12 6 Figure 17 7 Agglutination reaction 17 13 Immunofluorescence tests Direct fluorescent antibody test Indirect fluorescent antibody test 17 14 7 Figure 17 8 Direct and indirect fluorescent antibody test 17 15 Antigen antibody assays Radioimmunoassay RIA Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay ELISA Western blot 17 16 8 Radioimmunoassay RIA Competitive inhibition assay Measure antigen or antibody Ex Measure small amounts of hormones or drugs in a clinical sample Ex Measure small amounts of IgE antibody radioallergosorbent test 17 17 Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay ELISA Color reaction assay Indirect ELISA Direct ELISA 17 18 9 Figure 17 9 Indirect ELISA 17 19 17 20 Figure 17 1 Direct ELISA 10 Figure 17 1 Western blot 17 21 Complement fixation test Measures the binding of complement by an antigen antibody interaction Indicator system determine positive or negative reactions 17 22 11 Figure 17 1 Complement fixation test 17 23 Neutralization test Antibody bind to specific antigen virus toxin Antibody antigen complex prevents antigen from binding



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