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Analysis and Synthesis of Pathological Vowels



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Los Angeles Analysis and Synthesis of Pathological Vowels A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering by Brian Charles Gabelman 2003 Copyright by Brian Charles Gabelman 2003 The dissertation of Brian Charles Gabelman is approved Rajeev Jain Kung Yao David Rennels Abeer Alwan Committee Chair University of California Los Angeles 2003 ii DEDICATION To Anna Lesley and Raphael iii TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 Introduction 1 1 1 Motivation 3 1 2 Background and Related Work 5 1 3 Dissertation Outline 11 2 Analysis of Pathological Voices 14 2 1 Formant Analysis LP Analysis and Inverse Filtering 16 2 1 1 Basic LP Inverse Filtering 17 2 1 2 Idealized LP Impulsive Sources 19 2 1 3 Non impulsive Source Functions 20 2 1 4 Apriori Strategies 22 2 2 Fitting of Inverse Filtered Source 24 2 2 1 Simple Models 24 2 2 2 LF Model Characteristics 25 2 2 3 Modified LF Model Calculation 27 2 3 Analysis of Fundamental Frequency Variations 28 2 3 1 Fundamental Frequency Analysis Approach 29 2 3 2 High Resolution Fundamental Frequency Tracking 30 2 3 3 Analysis into HFPV and Tremor 31 iv 2 3 4 Gaussian Modeling of HFPV 32 2 3 5 FM Demodulation 32 2 4 Analysis of Fundamental Frequency Pulse Power Variation 34 2 4 1 Power Analysis Approach 34 2 4 2 Power Tracking 35 2 4 3 Power Time Series Analysis 37 2 4 4 Gaussian Modeling of Shimmer 38 2 4 5 AM Demodulation 38 2 5 Analysis of Source Aspiration Noise 39 2 5 1 Noise Measurement Approach 40 2 5 2 Cepstral NSR Calculation 41 2 5 3 Source Noise Spectrum 43 2 5 4 Effect of FM on NSR Measurement 43 2 5 5 Effect of AM on NSR Measurement 45 2 5 6 NSR Measurement Results 45 2 6 Summary 47 3 External Source Identification of the Vocal Tract 80 3 1 Overview of External Stimulation 82 3 2 Validation with a Simple Tube Model 85 3 3 Validation with a Vocal Tract 86 3 4 Improvement for Pathological Source 89 v 3 5 Summary 91 4 Speech Synthesizers 106 4 1



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