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In the Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education AIED 2005 Amsterdam the Netherlands 18 22 July 2005 An architecture to combine meta cognitive and cognitive tutoring Pilot testing the Help Tutor Vincent Aleven Ido Roll Bruce McLaren Eun Jeong Ryu Kenneth Koedinger Human Computer Interaction Institute Carnegie Mellon University 5000 Forbes Ave Pittsburgh PA 15213 USA Abstract Given the important role that meta cognitive processes play in learning intelligent tutoring systems should not only provide domain specific assistance but should also aim to help students in acquiring meta cognitive skills As a step toward this goal we have constructed a Help Tutor aimed at improving students help seeking skill The Help Tutor is based on a cognitive model of students desired help seeking processes as they work with a Cognitive Tutor Aleven et al 2004 To provide metacognitive tutoring in conjunction with cognitive tutoring we designed an architecture in which the Help Tutor and a Cognitive Tutor function as independent agents to facilitate re use of the Help Tutor Pilot tests with four students showed that students improved their help seeking behavior significantly while working with the Help Tutor The improvement could not be attributed to their becoming more familiar with the domainspecific skills being taught by the tutor Although students reported afterwards that they welcomed feedback on their help seeking behavior they seemed less fond of it when actually advised to act differently while working We discuss our plans for an experiment to evaluate the impact of the Help Tutor on students help seeking behavior and learning including future learning after their work with the Help Tutor Introduction A number of instructional programs with a strong focus on meta cognition have been shown to be effective for example programs dealing with self explanation Bielaczyc Pirolli Brown 1995 comprehension monitoring Palincsar Brown 1984

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