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to be submitted to AJ Water ice in the Kuiper belt M E Brown Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences California Institute of Technology Pasadena CA 91125 mbrown caltech edu E L Schaller NASA Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility Palmdale CA 93550 and National Suborbital Education and Research Center University of North Dakota Grand Forks ND 85202 W C Fraser Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences California Institute of Technology Pasadena CA 91125 ABSTRACT We examine a large collection of low resolution near infrared spectra of Kuiper belt objects and centaurs in an attempt to understand the presence of water ice in the Kuiper belt We find that water ice on the surface of these objects occurs in three separate manners 1 Haumea family members uniquely show surfaces of nearly pure water ice presumably a consequence of the fragmentation of the icy mantle of a larger differentiated proto Haumea 2 large objects with absolute magnitudes of H 3 and a limited number to H 4 5 have surface coverings of water ice perhaps mixed with ammonia that appears to be related to possibly ancient cryovolcanism on these large objects and 3 smaller KBOs and centaurs which are neither Haumea family members nor cold classical KBOs appear to divide into two families which we refer to as neutral and red each of which is a mixture of a common nearly neutral component and either a slightly red or very red component that also includes water ice A model suggesting that the difference between neutral and red objects s due to formation in an early compact solar system either inside or outside respectively of the 20 AU methanol evaporation line is supported by the observation that methanol is only detected on the reddest objects which are those which would be expected to have the most of the methanol containing mixture Subject headings solar system Kuiper belt solar system formation astrochemistry 2 1 Introduction The Kuiper belt is composed of low temperature remnants of the outer regions



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