ARCC PSYC 2270 - Chapter 8 (13 pages)

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Chapter 8



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Chapter 8

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Lecture Notes


Pages:
13
School:
Anoka-Ramsey Community College
Course:
Psyc 2270 - Theories of Personality

Unformatted text preview:

3 10 2009 Chapter 8 Evolutionary Perspectives on Personality Evolution and Natural Selection Human nature and human personality made up of a collection of evolved mechanisms Before Darwin two features of evolution were recognized Change over time and apparent adaptation to environment 1 3 10 2009 Natural Selection Darwin revolutionized biology by proposing a theory of the process by which adaptations are created and changes take place over time natural selection Natural Selection Changes or variants that better enabled an organism to survive and reproduce lead to more descendants Descendants inherit variants that led to their ancestors success 2 3 10 2009 Natural Selection Thus successful variants are selected and unsuccessful variants are weeded out Over time successful variants come to characterize entire species Adaptations inherited solutions to survival and reproductive problems posed by hostile forces of nature Sexual Selection Darwin noticed that many mechanisms seemed to threaten survival such as the peacock s elaborate plumage and the stag s large antlers Darwin proposed evolution by sexual selection as solution these traits evolved because they contributed to an individual s mating success 3 3 10 2009 Sexual Selection Two forms of sexual selection Intrasexual competition Members of the same sex compete with each other for sexual access to members of the other sex Intersexual competition Members of one sex choose a mate based on their preferences for particular qualities in that mate Genes and Inclusive Fitness Differential gene reproduction reproductive success relative to others Inclusive fitness theory Hamilton 1964 Inclusive fitness personal reproductive success number of offspring you produce plus effects you have on the reproduction of your genetic relatives weighted by genetic relatedness 4 3 10 2009 Products of the Evolutionary Process Adaptations Byproducts of Adaptations Noise or Random Variation Adaptations Adaptations are the primary products of



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