UK BIO 350 - GENOMIC IMPRINTING: PARENTAL INFLUENCE ON THE GENOME (12 pages)

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GENOMIC IMPRINTING: PARENTAL INFLUENCE ON THE GENOME



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GENOMIC IMPRINTING: PARENTAL INFLUENCE ON THE GENOME

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Pages:
12
School:
University of Kentucky
Course:
Bio 350 - Animal Physiology

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REVIEWS GENOMIC IMPRINTING PARENTAL INFLUENCE ON THE GENOME Wolf Reik and J rn Walter Genomic imprinting affects several dozen mammalian genes and results in the expression of those genes from only one of the two parental chromosomes This is brought about by epigenetic instructions imprints that are laid down in the parental germ cells Imprinting is a particularly important genetic mechanism in mammals and is thought to influence the transfer of nutrients to the fetus and the newborn from the mother Consistent with this view is the fact that imprinted genes tend to affect growth in the womb and behaviour after birth Aberrant imprinting disturbs development and is the cause of various disease syndromes The study of imprinting also provides new insights into epigenetic gene modification during development EUTHERIANS Mammals that give birth to live offspring viviparous and possess an allantoic placenta Laboratory of Developmental Genetics and Imprinting Developmental Genetics Programme The Babraham Institute Cambridge CB2 4AT UK Max PlanckInstitut f r Molekulare Genetik Ihnestr 73 14195 Berlin and Universit t des Saarlandes Genetik 66041 Saarbr cken Germany e mails wolf reik bbsrc ac uk walter molgen mpg de Genomic imprinting in mammals was discovered in the early 1980s as a result of two types of mouse experiment Nuclear transplantation was used to make embryos that had only one of the two sets of parental chromosomes uniparental embryos and other sophisticated genetic techniques were used to make embryos that inherited specific chromosomes from one parent only uniparental disomy In both cases the surprising finding was that mammalian genes could function differently depending on whether they came from the mother or the father1 6 The early 1990s then saw the discovery of the first imprinted genes which were indeed expressed differently on maternal and paternal chromosomes7 9 and the realization that imprinting had a substantial effect on human genetic disease10 11 It



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