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Deontology Duty Based Ethics IMMANUEL KANT KANT S OBJECTIONS TO UTILITARIANISM 1 Utilitarianism takes no account of integrity the accidental act or one done with evil intent if promoting good ends is the good act 2 Utilitarians hold the moral agent responsible for outcomes that are neither foreseeable nor controllable KANT S STARTING POINT Our existence has a different and far nobler end for which and not for happiness reason is properly intended and which must therefore be regarded as the supreme condition to which the private ends of man must for the most part be postponed KANT MORALITY BASED ON REASON ALONE Kant s Argument 1 There is a purpose for the existence of things that is the world is ordered and has ultimate principles 2 Happiness is for the lesser creatures not gifted with rationality 3 Because we are rational we are capable of something beyond mere happiness 4 That ability to be rational allows us to discern right from wrong apart from considerations of pleasure or happiness C Morality lies in the domain of rationality not happiness and we as rational creatures are designed to be capable of discovering principle guidelines for moral behavior KANT THE GOOD WILL Intentions count and the only intention that counts is the good will even if by some especially unfortunate fate or by the niggardly provision of step motherly nature this will should be wholly lacking in the power to accomplish its purpose if with the greatest effort it should yet achieve nothing and only the good will should remain yet would it like a jewel still shine by its own light as something which has full value in itself Kant Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals 1785 KANT THE GOOD WILL What is the Good Will It is not just any good intentions for example it is not the utilitarian intention to have the best outcome from one s actions It is the will to do one s duty without contradiction of reason regardless of outcome KANT THE GOOD WILL The good will has three distinguishing features

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