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HISTORICAL BACKGROUND I ALEXANDER THE GREAT 336 323 BC THE DIADOCHI 323 301 BC A Alexander s Conquered the Entire Near East 334 331 BC made Babylon capital B Greek Language and Culture was Spread Throughout Near East 1 Greek Culture Hellenic Mixture of Greek with Oriental Elements Hellenistic a Hellenizing of the East Orientalizing of Greeks b Gradually Developed in Last Centuries BC c Classical Greek Evolved to Koine Greek 2 Numerous Cities Founded on Model of the Greek Polis a Many Est by Alexander Most Important Alexandria in Egypt b Poleis had Certain Standard Elements Citizenship C 323 BC Alexander Contracted Fever Died With No Apparent Heir D 323 301 BC Alexander s Generals Diadochi Strugglers Vie for Control until Battle of Ipsus 301 determined Epigoni Heirs 1 Cassander Greece 2 Lysimachus Thrace and Asia Minor 3 Seleucus Mesopotamia and Syria Seleucid Empire 4 Ptolemy Egypt Ptolemaic Empire II THE PTOLEMAIC EMPIRE Ruled Palestine 301 198 BC A Based in Egypt Ruled Palestine 301 198 BC 1 Wealthy Period for Egypt Cities Refortified in Palestine 2 Wars with Seleucid Empire Beginning with Ptolemy II Daniel 11 B Condition of Jews Palestine 1 No Forced Hellenization of the Jews 2 Septuagint LXX produced tradition under Ptolemy II Philadelphus 283 246 BC 3 Zenon Papyri Some Jews resisted Hellenization III SELEUCID EMPIRE Ruled Palestine 198 140 BC A Seleucus I 312 281 BC founded empire Antiochus I 281 261 BC Capital Antioch B Antiochus III the Great 223 187 BC 1 198 BC Conquered Palestine at Battle of Paneas 2 Invasion of Greece Caused Roman Intervention a Repulsed Defeated by Rome at Magnesia on the Meander b Treaty of Apamea 188 BC Imposed Heavy Reparations 1 Financial Burden on Seleucids Son Ant IV sent to Rome as hostage 2 Antiochus Killed While Plundering a Temple 187 C Antiochus IV Epiphanes 175 163 BC Hostage 14 Years in Rome 1 Allowed Jewish High Priesthood to be Sold to High Bidder Dead Sea Scrolls Historical Background a 174 BC Replaced Onias III with



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