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Materials Science and Engineering A362 2003 228 239 A review on the status of anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells W Z Zhu S C Deevi Research and Development Center Chrysalis Technologies Incorporated 7801 Whitepine Road Richmond VA 23237 USA Received 23 April 2002 received in revised form 2 July 2003 Abstract Present review is aimed at providing a state of art development of anode for solid oxide fuel cell SOFC with principal emphasis on the materials aspect The criteria for the anode of SOFC are first presented The prospects and problems of the currently developed anode materials are elucidated In particular the electrochemical properties of the Ni YSZ cermet anode that is the most commonly employed in the establishment of SOFC stack is described along with various approaches attempted for their improvements The advantages and disadvantages of other anode materials are compared to offer some insights for the research and development of new generation of anode materials for SOFC 2003 Elsevier B V All rights reserved Keywords Solid oxide fuel cell Anode Mixed ionic electronic conductor 1 Introduction Solid oxide fuel cell SOFC is an electrochemical device that converts the energy of a chemical reaction directly into electrical energy Owing to the utilization of solid electrolyte and highest operating temperatures typically at 700 900 C it offers many advantages over conventional power generating systems in terms of efficiency reliability modularity fuel flexibility and environmental friendliness 1 2 In addition SOFCs offer the possibility of co generation with gas turbine power systems to enable full exploitation of both electricity and heat thereby enhancing the efficiency up to approximately 70 3 7 Single SOFC cell essentially consists of two porous electrodes separated by a dense oxygen conducting electrolyte The operating principle of such a cell is schematically illustrated in Fig 1 On the cathode air electrode side oxygen reacts with incoming electrons

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