SF State GEOL 480 - Chapter 8: Major Elements (27 pages)

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Chapter 8: Major Elements



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Chapter 8: Major Elements

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Pages:
27
School:
San Francisco State University
Course:
Geol 480 - Geochemistry

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Chapter 8 Major Elements Wet chems gravimetric volumetric Chapter 8 Major Elements Modern Spectroscopic Techniques Emitted radiation Energy Source Emission Detector Absorbed radiation Sample Output with emission peak Absorption Detector Output with absorption trough Figure 8 1 The geometry of typical spectroscopic instruments From Winter 2001 An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology Prentice Hall Element O Si Al Fe Ca Mg Na Wt Oxide Atom 60 8 59 3 21 2 15 3 6 4 7 5 2 2 6 9 2 6 4 5 2 4 2 8 1 9 Abundance of the elements in the Earth s crust Major elements usually greater than 1 SiO2 Al2O3 FeO MgO CaO Na2O K2O H2O Minor elements usually 0 1 1 TiO2 MnO P2O5 CO2 Trace elements usually 0 1 everything else A typical rock analysis Wt Oxides to Atom Conversion Oxide Wt Mol Wt Atom prop Atom SiO2 49 20 60 09 0 82 12 25 TiO2 1 84 95 90 0 02 0 29 Al2O3 15 74 101 96 0 31 4 62 Fe2O3 FeO MnO MgO CaO Na2O 3 79 7 13 0 20 6 73 9 47 2 91 159 70 71 85 70 94 40 31 56 08 61 98 0 05 0 10 0 00 0 17 0 17 0 09 0 71 1 48 0 04 2 50 2 53 1 40 K2O 1 10 94 20 0 02 0 35 H2O O Total 0 95 18 02 0 11 4 83 6 69 1 58 72 26 100 00 99 06 Must multiply by of cations in oxide Table 8 3 Chemical analyses of some representative igneous rocks Peridotite Basalt Andesite SiO2 42 26 49 20 57 94 TiO2 0 63 1 84 0 87 Al2O3 4 23 15 74 17 02 Fe2O3 3 61 3 79 3 27 FeO 6 58 7 13 4 04 MnO 0 41 0 20 0 14 MgO 31 24 6 73 3 33 CaO 5 05 9 47 6 79 Na2O 0 49 2 91 3 48 K2O 0 34 1 10 1 62 H2O 3 91 0 95 0 83 Total 98 75 99 06 99 3 Rhyolite Phonolite 72 82 56 19 0 28 0 62 13 27 19 04 1 48 2 79 1 11 2 03 0 06 0 17 0 39 1 07 1 14 2 72 3 55 7 79 4 30 5 24 1 10 1 57 99 50 99 23 CIPW Norm Mode is the volume of minerals seen Norm is a calculated idealized mineralogy Variation Diagrams How do we display chemical data in a meaningful way Bivariate x y diagrams Harker diagram for Crater Lake Figure 8 2 Harker variation diagram for 310 analyzed volcanic rocks from Crater Lake Mt Mazama Oregon Cascades Data compiled by Rick Conrey



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