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Chapter 2: Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System



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Biopsychology Chapter 2 Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System Copyright 2002 Michael A Bozarth Portions Copyright 2001 Allyn Bacon Neuron Structure 2 2 Copyright 2002 Michael A Bozarth Portions Copyright 2001 Allyn Bacon Neuron Classification Schemes n Neurons can be classified according to l Number of axon processes u u u l Function u u u l l Unipolar one stalk that splits into two branches Bipolar one axon one dendritic tree Multipolar one axon many dendritic branches Sensory neurons carry messages toward brain Motor neurons carry messages to muscles Interneurons connect cells Neurotransmitter released by neuron Effects of neurotransmitter excitatory vs inhibitory 2 3 Copyright 2002 Michael A Bozarth Portions Copyright 2001 Allyn Bacon Bipolar Unipolar Neurons 2 4 Copyright 2002 Michael A Bozarth Portions Copyright 2001 Allyn Bacon Types of Neurons n Transparency 8 Copyright 2002 Michael A Bozarth Portions Copyright 2001 Allyn Bacon Electrochemical Conduction n Nerve cells are specialized for communication neurons conduct ELECTROCHEMICAL signals l l l l l Dendrites receive chemical message from adjoining cells Chemical messengers activate receptors on the dendritic membrane Receptor activation opens ion channels which can alter membrane potential Action potential can result which is propagated down the membrane Action potential causes release of transmitter from axon terminals 2 6 Copyright 2002 Michael A Bozarth Portions Copyright 2001 Allyn Bacon Neuron Internal Structure 2 7 Copyright 2002 Michael A Bozarth Portions Copyright 2001 Allyn Bacon CNS Support Cells n Neuroglia glue provide physical support control nutrient flow and are involved in phagocytosis l Astrocytes Provide physical support remove debris and transport nutrients to neurons l Microglia Involved in phagocytosis and brain immune function l Oligodendroglia Provide physical support and form the myelin sheath CNS axons l Schwann Cells form myelin for PNS axons 2 8 Copyright 2002



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