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Basic Biology I Cells How organisms work Outline Chemistry pp 8 10 atoms molecules and bond polar bonds water Biochemistry pp 11 17 four basic macromolecules Cells pp 20 29 membrane osmotic pressure organelles endosymbiosis cell division gene expression Enzymes and energy generation pp 57 58 and 64 69 Chemistry Name the components of atoms and their role in determining the atom s identity and in forming chemical bonds Distinguish between the 3 main types of chemical bond Understand the relationship between water polar and non polar and hydrophilic and hydrophobic Chemistry At the bottom biology is nothing but applied chemistry All matter is composed of atoms Elements such as carbon and oxygen are a group of atoms of the same type For instance a nail made of iron is just a large group of iron atoms There are 92 naturally occurring elements plus about 25 artificially created elements Living things are mainly composed of the elements carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen Another dozen or so elements are also used phosphorus iron magnesium sodium potassium chlorine to name a few Atoms Atoms have 3 components protons neutrons and electrons The type of element carbon iron etc is entirely determined by how many protons are in the nucleus protons and neutrons are in the nucleus Protons have a 1 charge Neutrons have no charge Electrons circle around the nucleus in a series of shells Electrons have a 1 charge Chemical bonds are created by movements of the electrons between atoms The number of protons determines which element the atom is Hydrogen 1 proton carbon 6 protons oxygen 8 protons Biological and chemical processes never change the number of protons in any atom Normally the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons so the atom has no electrical charge it is neutral Chemical Bonds Atoms can combine with each other to form molecules A molecule is a defined number of atoms grouped into a defined spatial relationship For example water H2O is 2 hydrogen atoms

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