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12 Cardiovascular Emergencies Cardiovascular Emergencies Cardiovascular disease CVD claimed 931 108 lives in the US during 2001 2 551 per day Almost two people per minute CVD accounts for 38 5 of all deaths One of every 2 6 deaths Blood Flow Through the Heart Electrical System of the Heart Coronary Arteries Blood Flow Blood Cardiac Compromise Chest pain results from ischemia Ischemic heart disease involves decreased blood flow to the heart If blood flow is not restored the tissue dies Atherosclerosis Materials build up inside blood vessels This decreases or obstructs blood flow Risk factors place a person at risk Angina Pectoris Pain in chest that occurs when the heart does not receive enough oxygen Typically crushing or squeezing pain Rarely lasts longer than 15 minutes Can be difficult to differentiate from heart attack Heart Attack Acute myocardial infarction AMI Pain signals death of cells Opening the coronary artery within the first hour can prevent damage Immediate transport is essential Signs and Symptoms Sudden onset of weakness nausea sweating without obvious cause Chest pain discomfort Often crushing or squeezing Does not change with each breath Pain in lower jaw arms back abdomen or neck Sudden arrhythmia with syncope Shortness of breath or dyspnea Pulmonary edema Sudden death Pain of Heart Attack May or may not be caused by exertion Does not resolve in a few minutes Can last from 30 minutes to several hours May not be relieved by rest or nitroglycerin Sudden Death 40 of AMI patients do not reach the hospital Heart may be twitching Arrhythmias Bradycardia Ventricular Tachycardia Cardiogenic Shock Heart lacks power to force blood through the circulatory system Onset may be immediate or not apparent for 24 hours after AMI Congestive Heart Failure CHF occurs when ventricles are damaged Heart tries to compensate Increased heart rate Enlarged left ventricle Fluid backs up into lungs or body as heart fails to pump You are the Provider You are a volunteer EMT B

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