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Chapter 13 Government and Public Policy Public policy Policy Process Policy Purposes of National Government Public policy Public policy is any decision made by any government institution whatever governments choose to do or not to do National public policy usually falls in one of two categories domestic and foreign Policy decisions almost always affect groups in different ways causing contentious debate Basic Models of Policymaking Systems Model decisions based on interaction of social economic and political sectors of society Bureaucratic Model decisions and policy enforcement left up to the experts within the government bureaucracy Economic Models Marxism and Free Market Models Bases on Who Makes the Policy Decisions Elitism decisions made by small group big business mass media military for their own self interest not the interest of all citizens Pluralism decisions are the direct result of continuing struggles among many contesting groups that represent a broad range of citizen interests Models Based on How Policy Decisions are Made Rational Comprehensive Approach identify problems prioritize consider all options select and implement those policies with lowest cost and most benefit Incrementalism build on existing policies modifying them as necessary in the general public interest Stages of Decision Process Getting Issues on the Agenda can be domestic or foreign issues must be a salient concern Formulating Proposals usually includes a policy issue strategy Adopting Policy legislative executive or judicial action Implementing Policy bureaucratic action Evaluating Policy Public Policy Categories Domestics Policy decisions about matters affecting individuals within a political system Foreign Policy collective national decisions about relations with other national entities Current Policy Examples Fair Labor Standards Act Overtime Pay Categories Pay Equity Amendment 3 attempts in 107th Minimum Wage Fairness Act 2007 CAFTA Executive Order 12333 reorganizing

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