ACC MLAB 1331 - Mycology (25 pages)

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Mycology



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Mycology

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Pages:
25
School:
Austin Community College District
Course:
Mlab 1331 - Parasitology/Mycology
Parasitology/Mycology Documents

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MLAB 1331 MYCOLOGY LECTURE GUIDE I OVERVIEW OF MYCOLOGY A Importance of mycology 1 Introduction Mycology the study of fungi Fungi molds and yeasts Molds exhibit filamentous type of growth Yeasts pasty or mucoid form of fungal growth 50 000 valid species some have more than one name due to minor variations in size color host relationship or geographic distribution 2 General considerations Fungi stain gram positive and require oxygen to survive Fungi are eukaryotic containing a nucleus bound by a membrane endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria Bacteria are prokaryotes and do not contain these structures Fungi are heterotrophic like animals and most bacteria they require organic nutrients as a source of energy Plants are autotrophic Fungi are dependent upon enzymes systems to derive energy from organic substrates saprophytes live on dead organic matter parasites live on living organisms Fungi are essential in recycling of elements especially carbon 3 Role of fungi in the economy a Industrial uses of fungi 1 2 3 4 5 b Mushrooms Class Basidiomycetes Truffles Class Ascomycetes Natural food supply for wild animals Yeast as food supplement supplies vitamins Penicillium ripens cheese adds flavor Roquefort etc Fungi used to alter texture improve flavor of natural and processed foods Fermentation 1 2 3 Fruit juices ethyl alcohol Saccharomyces cerevisiae brewer s and baker s yeast Fermentation of industrial alcohol fats proteins acids etc 1 of 25 c Antibiotics First observed by Fleming noted suppression of bacteria by a contaminating fungus of a culture plate d Plant pathology Most plant diseases are caused by fungi e 4 Medical importance 1 2 50 100 species recognized human pathogens Most prefer to be free living saprophytes and only accidentally become pathogens 3 To be pathogenic they must tolerate the temperature of the host site and possess enzymatic system that allows them to parasitize animal tissues 4 Increased incidence of fungal infections in recent times Importance of



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