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Disraelia



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Disraelia A Counterfactual History 1848 2008 by Walter Laqueur April 1 2008 Number One Counterfactual history is a reaction to the extreme de personalization and determinism of current historical studies with their emphasis on social history opposed to events and personalitydriven history Wikipedia but it did not go very far Jews were limited to a Pale of Settlement in Russia and to certain professions they could not study and own land and many professions were closed to them Heinrich Graetz History of the Jews volume 8 preface Great were the hopes and expectations of European Jews when the walls of the ghettoes came down It was a long drawn out process and conditions varied from country to country In Britain it began with the readmission of the Jews under Cromwell In France the Revolution and Napoleon proceeded with the emancipation of the Jews which had come underway at the time of the absolutist kings and the Enlightenment In Eastern Europe the decline and eventual disappearance of Poland hastened the process The number of Jews greatly increased between 1750 and 1850 and their life expectancy was considerably higher than that of non Jews They streamed to the major towns from the coun Walter Laqueur Disraelia A Counterfactual History 1 Middle East Papers Middle East Strategy at Harvard tryside where they had only a very meager living even in Germany about one third were peddlers and about the same number had no known source of income but depended on alms given by their coreligionists who were better off The economic situation of the Jews in Poland and Russia actually deteriorated during this period hence the increasing migration to the West As the Jews moved to the cities they came into conflict with the merchants and artisans and this created new tensions Jews but a growing number of influential churchmen began to resist it They doubted whether the conversion was genuine the Jews did not truly believe in Christianity but regarded it as Heine had put it as the



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