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CIA The World Factbook Iran 05 03 2007 11 42 AM Select a Country or Location Iran Click to enlarge Home Reference Maps Appendixes Print Friendly Page Introduction Geography People Government Economy Communications Transportation Military Transnational Issues This page was last updated on 17 April 2007 Legend Introduction Iran https www cia gov cia publications factbook geos ir html Definition Field Listing Rank Order Top of Page Page 1 of 15 CIA The World Factbook Iran 05 03 2007 11 42 AM Background Known as Persia until 1935 Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling monarchy was overthrown and the shah was forced into exile Conservative clerical forces established a theocratic system of government with ultimate political authority vested in a learned religious scholar referred to commonly as the Supreme Leader who according to the constitution is accountable only to the Assembly of Experts Iranian US relations have been strained since a group of Iranian students seized the US Embassy in Tehran on 4 November 1979 and held it until 20 January 1981 During 1980 88 Iran fought a bloody indecisive war with Iraq that eventually expanded into the Persian Gulf and led to clashes between US Navy and Iranian military forces between 1987 and 1988 Iran has been designated a state sponsor of terrorism for its activities in Lebanon and elsewhere in the world and remains subject to US economic sanctions and export controls because of its continued involvement Following the election of the reformist Hojjat ol Eslam Mohammad KHATAMI as president in 1997 and similarly a reformist Majles parliament in 2000 a campaign to foster political reform in response to popular dissatisfaction was initiated The movement floundered as conservative politicians prevented reform measures from being enacted increased repressive measures and made electoral gains against reformers Starting with nationwide municipal elections in 2003 and continuing through Majles elections in 2004 conservatives reestablished control over Iran s elected government institutions which culminated with the August 2005 inauguration of an ultra conservative layman as president Geography Iran Top of Page Location Middle East bordering the Gulf of Oman the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea between Iraq and Pakistan Geographic coordinates 32 00 N 53 00 E Map references Middle East Area total 1 648 million sq km land 1 636 million sq km water 12 000 sq km Area comparative slightly larger than Alaska Land boundaries total 5 440 km border countries Afghanistan 936 km Armenia 35 km Azerbaijan proper 432 km Azerbaijan Naxcivan exclave 179 km Iraq 1 458 km Pakistan 909 km Turkey 499 km Turkmenistan 992 km https www cia gov cia publications factbook geos ir html Page 2 of 15 CIA The World Factbook Iran 05 03 2007 11 42 AM Coastline 2 440 km note Iran also borders the Caspian Sea 740 km Maritime claims territorial sea 12 nm contiguous zone 24 nm exclusive economic zone bilateral agreements or median lines in the Persian Gulf continental shelf natural prolongation Climate mostly arid or semiarid subtropical along Caspian coast Terrain rugged mountainous rim high central basin with deserts mountains small discontinuous plains along both coasts Elevation extremes lowest point Caspian Sea 28 m highest point Kuh e Damavand 5 671 m Natural resources petroleum natural gas coal chromium copper iron ore lead manganese zinc sulfur Land use arable land 9 78 permanent crops 1 29 other 88 93 2005 Irrigated land 76 500 sq km 2003 Natural hazards periodic droughts floods dust storms sandstorms earthquakes Environment current issues air pollution especially in urban areas from vehicle emissions refinery operations and industrial effluents deforestation overgrazing desertification oil pollution in the Persian Gulf wetland losses from drought soil degradation salination inadequate supplies of potable water water pollution from raw sewage and industrial waste urbanization Environment international party to Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change Kyoto Protocol agreements Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Marine Dumping Ozone Layer Protection Ship Pollution Wetlands signed but not ratified Environmental Modification Law of the Sea Marine Life Conservation https www cia gov cia publications factbook geos ir html Page 3 of 15 CIA The World Factbook Iran 05 03 2007 11 42 AM Geography note strategic location on the Persian Gulf and Strait of Hormuz which are vital maritime pathways for crude oil transport People Iran Top of Page Population 65 397 521 July 2007 est Age structure 0 14 years 23 2 male 7 783 794 female 7 385 721 15 64 years 71 4 male 23 636 883 female 23 088 934 65 years and over 5 4 male 1 701 727 female 1 800 462 2007 est Median age total 25 8 years male 25 6 years female 26 years 2007 est Population growth rate 0 663 2007 est Birth rate 16 57 births 1 000 population 2007 est Death rate 5 65 deaths 1 000 population 2007 est Net migration rate 4 29 migrant s 1 000 population 2007 est Sex ratio at birth 1 05 male s female under 15 years 1 054 male s female 15 64 years 1 024 male s female 65 years and over 0 945 male s female total population 1 026 male s female 2007 est Infant mortality rate total 38 12 deaths 1 000 live births male 38 29 deaths 1 000 live births female 37 93 deaths 1 000 live births 2007 est Life expectancy at birth total population 70 56 years male 69 12 years female 72 07 years 2007 est Total fertility rate 1 71 children born woman 2007 est https www cia gov cia publications factbook geos ir html Page 4 of 15 CIA The World Factbook Iran 05 03 2007 11 42 AM HIV AIDS adult prevalence rate less than 0 1 2001 est HIV AIDS people living with 31 000 2001 est HIV AIDS HIV AIDS deaths 800 2003 est Nationality noun Iranian s adjective Iranian Ethnic groups Persian 51 Azeri 24 Gilaki and Mazandarani 8 Kurd 7 Arab 3 Lur 2 Baloch 2 Turkmen 2 other 1 Religions Muslim 98 Shi a 89 Sunni 9 other includes Zoroastrian Jewish Christian and Baha i 2 Languages Persian and Persian dialects 58 Turkic and Turkic dialects 26 Kurdish 9 Luri 2 Balochi 1 Arabic 1 Turkish 1 other 2 Literacy definition age 15 and over can read and write total population 79 4 male 85 6 female 73 2003 est Government Iran Top of Page Country name conventional long form Islamic Republic of Iran conventional short form Iran local long form Jomhuri ye Eslami ye Iran local short form Iran former Persia Government type theocratic republic Capital name Tehran


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