New version page

The Native Americans

Upgrade to remove ads

This preview shows page 1-2-21-22 out of 22 pages.

Save
View Full Document
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 22 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 22 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 22 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 22 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience

Upgrade to remove ads
Unformatted text preview:

Chapter 6: The Native AmericansDiversitySummary of Contact and PoliciesSlide 4Slide 5Slide 6Reservation Life and Federal PoliciesNative American Legal ClaimsSlide 9The Termination Act of 1953Employment Assistance ProgramCollective ActionSlide 13SovereigntyNative Americans TodaySlide 16EducationHealthcareReligious ExpressionEnvironmentEnvironmentSlide 22Chapter 6:The Native AmericansDiversity“Indian Culture” – glosses over diversityLanguage – 1500 AD, 700 distinct languagesKinship systemPolitical - economicIn 1500 Native American population stood at 10,000,000 and by 1900 declined to less than 250,000Summary of Contact and Policies1492 Arrival of Columbus1607 Jamestown was founded 1620 Pilgrims landed at Plymouth1622 First major Indian retaliation1744 Treaty of Lancaster – Indian loss of land1778 First treaty between US and Indians1803 US Louisiana Purchase1824 BIA established; placed in the Department of War1830 Indian Removal Act – eastern tribes moved west1854 Indian Appropriation Act 1862 Railroad Act1868 Fort Laramie Peace Conference1887 General Allotment Act (Dawes) – Subdivided landSummary of Contact and Policies1924 Indian Citizenship Act1944 National Congress of American Indians1947 Indian Claims Commission Act1948 Indians allowed to vote in Arizona1953 Termination Act – closes reservations and federal funding1962 Indians allowed to vote in New Mexico1968 Indian Civil Rights ActSummary of Contact and Policies1972 Indian Education Act1975 Indian Self-Determination Act1978 American Indian Religious Freedom Act1978 Indian Child Welfare Act1988 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act1990 Indian Art & Craft ActSummary of Contact and PoliciesReservation Life and Federal PoliciesApproximately 25% of the Native American population live on reservations with approximately 75% living in Urban areasThere are slightly over 557 recognized reservations in the United StatesNative American Legal ClaimsFrom 1836 to 1946 Native Americans could not bring a claim against the government without an Act of CongressOnly 142 claims were heard during this periodIn 1946 Congress established the Indian Claims Commission to hear claims against the governmentLed to an increase in claimsCommission was extended until 1978 - now cases are heard by U.S. Court of ClaimsAmount of awards and setoffs increasedThe case of the Black HillsIndian chose to recover land rather than seek a financial settlementNative American Legal ClaimsThe Termination Act of 1953The most controversial governmental policy toward reservation lifeIt reduced costs and ignored individual needsFederal services were stopped immediatelyThe effect of the governmental order was disastrousIn 1975, the government resumed the servicesEmployment Assistance ProgramProgram led to the relocation from reservations to urban areas off the reservationsGovernment provided educational and business assistance……but the impact was disastrous on the economic development of the reservation and led to brain drainBy 1965, about 1/3 returned to the reservationCollective ActionPan-IndianismIntertribal movement toward solidarity and common identityEmerged out of the effects of “internal colonialism” –the treatment of subordinate peoples as colonial subjects by those in powerNational Congress of American Indians (NCAI), founded in Denver 1948Political role of NCAI was to lobby Washington for an Indian voiceUrban problems and AIM- founded by Clyde Bellecourt and Dennis Banks in 1968 at Minneapolis, MN: police brutality to alcohol rehabilitationConflict over fishing rights in the Northwest led to “fish-ins”: civil disobedience actsTakeover of Alcatraz in 1969: Indians claimed the “excess land”; left a year later, but this led to…Red Power: BIA sympathizers labeled “apples”AIM led a 70 day occupation of Wounded Knee, S.D. to oust the leader of the Ogallala Sioux tribeCollective ActionSovereigntyWhile collaborative action gathering cannot be minimized, there continues to be a strong effort to maintain tribal sovereignty or tribal self-ruleNative Americans TodayPoor economic development – continued high rate of unemployment and povertyTourism is a double edged sword It is a source of income but also a source of degradationCottage industries - craftworkSome income from mineral rightsCasino gambling – significant income, but all of the negatives that associate gamblingGovernment employment – major source of employmentBIA subcultureBIA educated workforceFederal control of Native American educationBIA schoolsSome tribes formed their own education systems…with mixed resultsEducational Attainment - drop out or pushout rate is 50% higher than for Blacks or HispanicsTesting, schooling,and the “crossover effect” – IQ tests taken in English instead of native language yields lower scoresNative Americans TodayEducationThere is under-enrollment at all levels, from the primary grades through collegeThere is a need to adjust to a school with values sometimes dramatically different from those of the homeThere is a need to make the curriculum more relevantTribal community colleges are under-financedReservation-born Native Americans encounter hardships when students later live in and attend schools in large citiesThe language barrier faced by the many children who have little or no knowledge of English is problematicHealthcareNative Americans suffer high rates of:1. Alcoholism and mortality2. Under-nutrition3. Tuberculosis leading to death4. High rate of teenage suicide Lack of access to health care resources – poverty is a major contributorReligious ExpressionAmerican Indian Religious Freedom Act passed by Congress in 1978Act contains no penalties and enforcement provisions – “the law with no teeth”Native American Church - ritualistic use of peyote and marijuanaIn 1994, Congress amended the Indian Religious Freedom Act to allow Native Americans the right to use, transport, and possess peyote for religious purposesEnvironmentCERT was formed in 1976 - Council of Energy Resource TribesConsisted of twenty-five of the West’s largest tribes Other tribes were added laterPurpose is to protect and develop tribal natural resources such as natural gasStruggle


Download The Native Americans
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view The Native Americans and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view The Native Americans 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?