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Body Composition

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11/22/10 1 Body Composition Karmen Ovsepyan Anet Piridzhanyan Rachel Robinson Daneivys Rodriguez Stacey Sturzenacker History  440BC Hippocrates  Ancient Chinese scholars  980AD  Late 1900’s http://www.bodysystems.co.nz/bodystat.shtml11/22/10 2 Body Composition http://www.exercisebiology.com/index.php/site/articles/which_is_the_most_accurate_body_fat_measurement_method_calculator/ Lean Build vs. Non-Lean Build Aesthetic and weight dependent Sports  Cross-country  Track  Swimming  Body builders  Wrestling/Boxing  Dance/Ballet Non-weight dependent Sports  Tennis  Volleyball  Basketball  Soccer  Hockey  Lacrosse  Field events from Track and Field Nichols,)J.F.,)Rauh,)M.J.,)Barrack,)M.T.,)Barkai,)H.,)&)Pernick,)Y.)(2010).)Disordered)eaBng))and)menstrual)irregularity)in)high)school)athletes)in)lean‐build)and)nonlean‐build)sports.)Interna'onal*Journal*of*Sport*Nutri'on*and*Exercise*Metabolism,*17,)364‐377.)www.livestrong.com11/22/10 3 Analyzing Body Composition and Assessing Weight http://www.witweightloss.com/  Physical measurements: Important for assessment of progress to achieve peak performance. -Height -Weight -Somatotype -Girth -Body Composition Height & Weight  Height (stature) & weight (body mass) -optimal weight is relative to height  For accurate measurements: -measurement boards -calibrated scales Imagegs taken from: http://www.womansday.com/var/ezflow_site/storage/images/media/galleries-slideshows/_image.jpg http://www.quickmedical.com/images/sku/tnails_250/78.jpg11/22/10 4 Somatotype (Body Build)  Endomorph -stocky, gain fat easily  Mesomorph -muscular, do not gain large amounts of fat  Ectomorph -minor, small amounts of fat and muscle Imagine taken from:http://www.pponline.co.uk/encyc/img/251Bfig1.png Girth  Circumference of different body parts -waist, hips, calves, thighs, arms, chest.  Helps track changes in body size Images taken from: http://www.topendsports.com/testing/images/girth-hip.jpg11/22/10 5 Tools To Assess Body Composition  Near-infrared interactance (NIR)  Biolectrical impedance (BIA)  Skinfold thickness  Body plethysmography (Bod Pod)  Hydrostatic (underwater) weighing  Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA or DXA) Tools To Assess Body Composition Image taken from: http://s1.hubimg.com/u/1136328_f260.jpg https://teach.lanecc.edu/naylore/225lectures/09a/thumbnails/09omronhandheldimpedence.jpg Image taken from: http://i2.cdn.turner.com/cnn/2009/HEALTH/01/02/healthmag.measuring.body.fat/art.calipers.arm.gi.jpg Images taken from: http://www.ori.org/healthyweight/images/bodpod.jpg Image taken from: http://www.livebetterwiki.com/Portals/0/underwater%20weighing.jpg Image taken from: http://www.tappmedical.com/page_images/dexa.jpg11/22/10 6 Weight Maintenance  Athletes can face unwanted weight gain/weight loss  Focus on a time in the pass when weight was maintained  Periodization  Change of training and competition season  May increase or decrease nutrient needs  Injuries and Off Season Weight Reduction  Identify an Appropriate Weight Range  Evaluate Current Dietary and Exercise Practices  Establish Energy and Macronutrient Requirements  Devise a Dietary Plan for Achieving Goals on Established Needs  Educate the Athlete; Review the Dietary Plan, Monitor Status11/22/10 7 Weight Gain  Gaining body weight requires consistent excess energy intake  Gain lean weight or muscle mass  Increase Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats  Similar five steps from Weight Reduction Four steps to achieving optimal performance weight 1. Assessment 2. Goal Setting 3. Action Plan 4. Evaluation and Reassessment http://www.behaviortherapyassociates.com/histepsummersocialskillsprogramnewjersey.html11/22/10 8 Gain Muscle, Lose Excess Fat  In order to do this recommendations are:  Aerobic activity  Resistance Training  keeps fat off and increases muscle mass  Aerobic workouts and weight training along with proper nutrition enables an athlete to get their desired body composition hNp://1.bp.blogspot.com/_3yPf33hffzs/S_K0IKt0FqI/AAAAAAAAA0I/1nnqeoWeTP0/s1600/weight‐li\ing‐for‐women.jpg)More Protein?  Do athletes need excess protein to build muscle?  Do not need excessive amounts of protein  No benefits from excess protein  Lower carbohydrate intake  Excessive caloric intake  Greater fluid losses  Higher food costs11/22/10 9 HET http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.embracethefuture.org.au/resiliency/images/ecological-diagram.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.model9489.net/ralph-lauren-male model.html&usg=__Pygr8lyr4GI2cVsTCZIdeXOhRYE=&h=420&w=440&sz=24&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=lHAxJmIgCVzPKM:&tbnh=136&tbnw=142&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dhuman%2Becological%2Btheory%2Bmodel%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1259%26bih%3D658%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=402&vpy=170&dur=22&hovh=219&hovw=230&tx=138&ty=136&ei=DW3pTLeSK5KisQOkpdGwCw&oei=DW3pTLeSK5KisQOkpdGwCw&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=19&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0 Articles11/22/10 10 Body composition assessment in athletes with spinal cord injury: comparison of field methods with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry  Mojtahedi, M., Valentine, R., & Evans, E. (2009). Body composition assessment in athletes with spinal cord injury: comparison of field methods with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Spinal Cord, 47(9), 698-704. Retrieved from http://libproxy.csun.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rzh&AN=2010398878&site=ehost-live http://seriousaccidents.com/spinal-cord-paralysis-injury/paralysisinjury-blog/paralyzed-celebrities/paralympians-25-years- fundraising-spinal-cord-injury-research/ Purpose  Purpose of the study was to compare estimates of body fat % from SKF and BIA with the DXA estimates in athletes who have spinal chord injury.11/22/10 11 Methods (Participants)  16 Caucasian athletes with SCI  8 women & 8 men  12 wheelchair basketball & 4 wheelchair racing programs.  11 complete SCI & 5 incomplete SCI Methods (Procedures)  No alcohol  No exercise 16hr before testing  Empty bladder  Women: during days 7-14 from start of last menstrual period 


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