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UVM HIST 025 - WOMENENLIGHT

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Slide 1Slide 2Slide 3Slide 4Slide 5Slide 6Slide 7Slide 8Slide 9Slide 10Slide 11WOMEN AND THE ENLIGHTENMENTWOMEN AND THE ENLIGHTENMENTDUAL EFFECT ON WOMEN & VIEWS OF WOMEN  Some promotion of women’s rights Liberty & equality should apply to women as well as men Laid foundations of modern feminism Persistence of ideas of inferiority & subjugation Women mostly excluded from discussions of liberty & equality Rise of ideology of domesticityWOMEN AND THE ENLIGHTENMENTBACKGROUND  Foundations of potential equality found in 17th century thinkers Descartes: All women had ability to be educated Locke: Women equally independent in state of natureWOMEN AND THE ENLIGHTENMENTTHE PHILOSOPHES ON WOMEN  The positive views Some blamed society for women’s inequality MARQUIS DE CONDORCET: proclaimed women’s right to equal citizenship & education• Believed in women’s intellectual potentialWOMEN AND THE ENLIGHTENMENTTHE PHILOSOPHES ON WOMEN  The negative views Promotion of old notions of women’s inferiority & weakness Women continually linked with irrationality & emotion Excluded from discussions of liberty, equality, reason, scienceWOMEN AND THE ENLIGHTENMENTTHE PHILOSOPHES ON WOMEN  ROUSSEAU  Social contract included one between men & women•men protect women women serve men Emile: articulation of idea of SEPARATE SPHERES•men = public women = private• glorified domesticityWOMEN AND THE ENLIGHTENMENTWOMEN OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT  Many women greatly affected by ideas of Enlightenment Women influence Enlightenment as salonnieres & sponsors Women began to demand greater role in intellectual lifeMADAME DE GEOFRINWOMEN AND THE ENLIGHTENMENTWOMEN OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT  MARY ASTELL (1666-1731)  Challenged notion of separate spheres Criticized failure to extend notions of liberty to womenWOMEN AND THE ENLIGHTENMENTWOMEN OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT  MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT (1759-1797)  A Vindication of the Rights of Woman• advocated equality of sexes• formulated main doctrines of modern women’s movement• education was key to equality & independenceWOMEN AND THE ENLIGHTENMENTWOMEN OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT  OYMPE DE GOUGES (1745-1793)  Declaration of the Rights of Woman• asserted women’s ability to reason & make moral decisions•women not same as men, but equal• women had right to free speechWOMEN AND THE ENLIGHTENMENTCONCLUSIONS Did not result in advances for most women in 18th c. Education extended, but became gender specific & women excluded from many fields Economic setbacks due to rise of capitalism Separation of public & private & ideology of domesticity largely restricted women But gave birth to new feminist consciousness & advocacy of rights & opportunities for


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