New version page

Culturally-Competent School Counseling With Asian American Adolescents

Upgrade to remove ads

This preview shows page 1-2-3-4-5-6 out of 19 pages.

Save
View Full Document
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 19 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 19 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 19 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 19 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 19 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 19 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience

Upgrade to remove ads
Unformatted text preview:

1 Culturally-Competent School Counseling With Asian American Adolescents Linda G. Castillo and Marion J. Phoummarath Texas A&M UniversityCulturally-Competent 2 Abstract Asian American adolescents are frequently overlooked as a population in need of counseling interventions. However, cultural issues such as refugee status or the pressure of high academic achievement can influence an Asian American student’s mental health. As there is a dearth of school counseling literature written about what school counselors should be aware of when working with Asian American adolescents, the purpose of this paper is to provide school counselors with knowledge, awareness, and skills needed to work with Asian American youth and families in the schools. An historical overview of Asian immigration and common cultural beliefs are discussed. A model for working with Asian American adolescents in the schools is provided as well as suggestions for counseling with Asian American adolescents.Culturally-Competent 3 Culturally-Competent School Counseling With Asian American Adolescents Asian American adolescents are a very diverse group who come from many different countries. They differ in methods and time of migration, language, social class, and religion. Asian Americans constitute one of the fastest growing population groups in the United States (Serafica, 1999). The U.S. Census Bureau (2002a) reported that approximately 4.2% of the population is of Asian descent. Of this group, persons 19 years and under make up 8.6% of the Asian American population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000b). Due to the growing number of Asian American adolescents, school counselors must be prepared to provide effective counseling interventions. Much of what is published in the counseling literature on Asian American adolescents consists of attempts to increase cultural awareness and sensitivity of counselors by describing cultural variables and issues that are often found in the Asian American population (e.g., adolescent’s ethnic identification, acculturation, filial piety; Serafica, 1999). Other areas covered in the counseling literature have focused on academic achievement of Asian Americans (see Slaughter-Defoe, Nakagawa, Takanishi, & Johnson, 1990, for a review). However, there has been little attention given to Asian American adolescents’ mental health issues. To date, the counseling literature on treatment of mental health problems of Asian American adolescents has been limited to studies of characteristics of service facilities and counselors, and the impact of both on counseling outcomes. Little is written about what school counselors should be aware of when working with Asian American adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to provide school counselors with knowledge, awareness, and skills needed to work with Asian American youth andCulturally-Competent 4 families in the schools. First, historical and cultural perspectives on Asian Americans are examined. Second, some cultural issues school counselors should be aware of when working with Asian American students will be highlighted. Third, an overview of a counseling model for working with Asian American families in the school is provided. Historical and Cultural Perspectives Some people ascribe to the ideology that views the U.S. as a melting pot of individuals of different cultural backgrounds melding into one common culture. When viewed this way, the rich histories that make up each individual culture are often overlooked. Asian Americans are frequently and mistakenly viewed as a single sub-culture in the U.S. Although Asian American ethnic groups share similar cultural values (e.g. filial piety, the placement of the needs of the family before one’s own, respect for elders, and the use of shame and guilt as a means of maintaining order and control), it would be unwise and detrimental to assume that all Asians Americans are alike. Since Asian Americans are from many different ethnic groups (Sue, 1998), school counselors working with Asian American adolescents are highly encouraged to become familiar with the historical background of their students’ country of origin. Various Asian American ethnic groups differ in the methods and time of migration to the U.S., both of which have considerable influence on life in the U.S. The first wave of Asian immigrants arrived from China in the beginning of the 1840s (Sue & Sue, 1999). Because of the high demand for cheap labor and overpopulation in China, many Chinese (primarily peasant males) immigrated to the U.S. Beginning in the 1890s, the second wave of Asian groups to migrate was the Japanese. Many Japanese immigrants had previously come from a farming class and thus gravitated to farming and gardeningCulturally-Competent 5 work in the U. S. (Kitano, 1969). Over half a century later (1973 to 1993), the third and fourth waves of Asian immigrants came to the U.S. due to the leniency of immigration laws. The third wave of immigrants during this period consisted largely of highly educated and skilled professionals who held professional degrees from China, India, Korea, and the Philippines (Sandu, 1997). Conversely, the fourth wave of immigrants was much less educated and likely unskilled. During this same time period, refugees from Southeast Asia arrived in the U.S. as a result of the Vietnam War. The majority of whom were Vietnamese, Cambodian, and Laotian from rural areas who were also undereducated and possessed few job skills (Chung, Bemak, & Okazaki, 1997). Knowledge of historical information regarding how and when Asian American ethnic groups arrived in the U.S. enables school counselors to understand three important factors: level of acculturation, family social class, and educational background. Awareness of these factors is essential, because it informs the school counselor the extent to which the student and his or her family are familiar with the U.S. educational system and the amount of financial and emotional resources available to them. For example, the first two waves of Asian immigrants have had a longer time to acculturate to U.S. society than the third and fourth. This would suggest that members of Asian American ethnic groups such as Chinese Americans and Japanese Americans have a more extended history in the U.S. Thus, many Chinese American and Japanese American students and their families would likely be more acculturated than Vietnamese American and Laotian American


Download Culturally-Competent School Counseling With Asian American Adolescents
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Culturally-Competent School Counseling With Asian American Adolescents and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Culturally-Competent School Counseling With Asian American Adolescents 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?