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GT CS 4470 - Haptics and the User Interface

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1Haptics and the User Interfacebased on slides fromKaron MacLean,original slides available at: User Interfaces 2what is haptic?from Greek haptesthai : to touch2Haptic User Interfaces 3types of human haptic sensingcutaneous / tactile:• heat, pressure, vibration, slip, pain• sensation arising from stimulus to the skinkinesthesia / proprioception:• limb position, motion, force• end organs located in muscles, tendons, and joints• stimulated by bodily movementsHaptic User Interfaces 4what is “haptic force feedback”?a small personal robot:• applies computer-controlledforces to user’s hand• represents a virtualenvironment• acts as both an input andoutput device: user feels &controls at same time.3Haptic User Interfaces 5haptic or “force feedback” interfaceshuman haptics:psychophysics& cognitionmachine haptics:machine design,sensing,communicationscomputer haptics:stability, modeling,renderingapplicationHaptic User Interfaces 6haptic interfaces are oftenmultimodal:other sensorymodalitiesvirtualinteraction modelforce & tactilefeedback psychophysicists have discovered a few things abouthow stimuli to multiple senses influence one another4Haptic User Interfaces 7some current application areasin no particular order• desktop GUI augmentation• medical robotics• physical rehabilitation• entertainment• embedded consumer electronics• telerobotics and virtual environments• training and education• CAD tools• creative & expressive toolsHaptic User Interfaces 8desktop “HUI”one approach:• everyone has a haptic mouse(force or tactile feedback)• render GUI is easier with edges, textures, etcmore ambitious:• redesign GUI’s from ground up with haptic feedbackin minda bit further out still:it’s not a desk any more…5Haptic User Interfaces 9medical applications• training & simulation, for:– diagnosis– tissue palpation– measures… swelling, bone fracture, pulse, lumps• Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS)– training through simulation– the real thing: “fly by wire” to improve interaction• telesurgerydemonstrated on a human in France this semester!Haptic User Interfaces 10Intuitive Surgical, Inc.Mountain View, CAintuitive6Haptic User Interfaces 11rehabilitationHogan & Krebs, MIT Biomechanics Lab:retraining stroke patients while measuringtheir progress. Durfee & Goldfarb,MIT Biomechanics Lab:controllable brake aidsparaplegics in walkingHaptic User Interfaces 12entertainment: greatest cost pressure• virtual reality arcades (body-sized systems)• home-based gaming systems:– vibration feedback– force feedback joysticks and mice• coming soon (?):– model-based force feedback in synthesizer keys– more expressive & creative apps as quality ↑ and cost ↓7Haptic User Interfaces 13military applicationscombat simulators: projection with treadmill display Hollerbach, Univ. of UtahHaptic User Interfaces 14rest of talk• historical roots: robotics & teleoperation•tenets of physical interaction design• how force feedback works• rendering haptic models• areas of basic research• getting going8Haptic User Interfaces 1560’sGeneralElectricroboticsprogramHaptic User Interfaces 16man magnifierpoweredtelerobot:“manmagnifier”9Haptic User Interfaces 1770’sdriven byrehabilitationresearchOptacon:Braille readingdevice, first tactiledisplayHaptic User Interfaces 1880’s: “force feedback”improved teleoperation performanceSarcosArm10Haptic User Interfaces 19early 90’s• 1992: first “conference” on haptic feedback(session at a large mechanical engineeringconference – mainly about device design)• 1994: Minsky’s “virtual sandpaper”- example of texture rendering caused a “sensation”• 1994: PHANToM invented - for sale in 1995Haptic User Interfaces 20phantoms11Haptic User Interfaces 21late 90’s:• sensory and cognitive psychophysics studiesundertaken explicitly to improve haptic displays• 1997: first haptic game joystick for sale• 1999: went public• today, proliferation of research displaysHaptic User Interfaces 22physical interaction designtouchable interfaces:what’s so special about touch?what kind of interaction will it be good for?12Haptic User Interfaces 23special qualities of touchbidirectionality: encompasses intention, manipulation,gesture and perceptionsocial loading: intentional, socially invasive andcommittinggesture and expression: convey functional andemotional signals through touchingmulti-parametered: force, pressure, moisture,temperature, texture…resolution and associability: precise control &discrimination, poor absolute resolutionHaptic User Interfaces 24motivations for touchingwe touch intending to -do a taskprobe an objectpoke to elicit a reactionfidget to relieve tensioncommunicate a messageverify that an action is completedenjoy aesthetic pleasure or comfortconnect physically or emotionally to living things.13Haptic User Interfaces 25we avoid a touch through perception that it would bedirtypainfulforbiddentoo intimateand then, there are the “haptically challenged.”inhibitions to touchingHaptic User Interfaces 26information available from touchingassessments of an object’s dynamic and materialproperties.verification of engagement and completioncontinuous monitoring of ongoing activity and gradualdoneness.building mental models for invisible parts of a system.judgments of other people.14Haptic User Interfaces 27when active touching helps:potential benefitsreconfigurability:• represent environment changes haptically(e.g. # of knob detents)dealing with complexity:• offer cues to user options• differentiate buttons• merge discrete steps into fluid continuous controlgesture• transport electronic tool use away from desktopHaptic User Interfaces 28when active touching helps:potential benefitscomfort and aesthetics:• pleasant tactility• satisfying motion & dynamics• ergonomics• bidirectional environment coupling• muscle memory• personalizationaffect and communication:• adds social context and presence to mediated user-user or user-machine connections.15Haptic User Interfaces 29haptic feedback indiscrete and continuous controlbuttons for discrete control and information:• distinction / ID of objects• impose edges on continuous input• notify of failure / confirm operation success• reflex-rate user reactionshandles for continuous control & monitoring:• expressive input• lo-res,

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