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NED-v63-BakerSTARFIRE

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Nuclear Engineering and Design 63 (1981) 199-231 North-Hoiland Publishing Company STARFIRE, A COMMERCIAL TOKAMAK POWER PLANT DESIGN C.C. BAKER, M.A. ABDOU, C.D. BOLEY, A.E. BOLON *, J.N. BROOKS, R.G. CLEMMER, D.A. EHST, K. EVANS, Jr., P.A. FINN, R.E. FUJA, Y. GOHAR, J. JUNG, W.J. KANN, R.F. MATTAS, B. MISRA, H.L. SCHREYER, D.L. SMITH, H.C. STEVENS and L.R. TURNER Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA D.A. DE FREECE, C. DILLOW, G.D. MORGAN and C.A. TRACHSEL McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, P.O. Box 516, St. Louis, MO 63166, USA D. GRAUMANN, J. ALCORN, R.E. FIELDS and R. PRATER General Atomic Company, P.O. Box 81608, San Diego, CA 92138, USA J. KOKOSZENSKI, K. BARRY, M. CHERRY and H. KLUMPE The Ralph M. Parsons Company, 100 West Walnut Street, Pasadena, CA 91124, USA R.W. CONN **, G.A. EMMERT, I.N. SVIATOSLAVSKY and D.K. SZE Nuclear Engineering Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, W1 53706, USA Received 9 October 1980 STARFIRE is a design for a conceptual commercial tokamak electrical power plant based on the deuterium/ tritium/lithium fuel cycle. In addition to the goal of being technologically credible, the design incorporates safety and environmental considerations. STARFIRE is considered to be the tenth in a series of commercial fusion power plants. STARFIRE has a 7-m major radius reactor producing 1200 MW of net electrical power from 4000 MW of thermal power, with an average neutron wall load of 3.6 MW/m :~ . The aspect ratio is 3.6 and a D-shaped plasma with a height-to-width ratio of 1.6 and average toroidal beta of 0.067 is used. The maximum magnetic field is 11T. Availability goals have been set at 85% for the reactor and 75% for the complete plant including the reactor. The major features for STARFIRE include a steady-state operating mode based on a continuous rf lower-hybrid current drive and auxiliary heating, solid tritium breeder material, pressurized water cooling, limiter/vacuum for impurity control, most superconducting EF coils outside the TF superconducting coils, fully remote maintenance, and a low-activation shield. 1. Introduction The objective of the STARFIRE study is to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak electric power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/ * On leave from The University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65401, USA. ** Present address: School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA. lithium-fuel cycle. The key technical objective is to develop an attractive embodiment of the tokamak as a power reactor consistent with credible engineering solutions to design problems. Another goal of the study is to give careful attention to the safety and environmental features of a commercial fusion reac- tor. This paper describes the major features of the reference reactor concept. A detailed report, includ- ing a description of the entire plant and a cost esti- mate, will be issued in October 1980. The basic guidelines for STARFIRE assume the 199200 C C Baker et al. / STARFIRE, a commercial tokamak power plant design successful operation of a tokamak engineering test facility (ETF) and a demonstration power plant. STARFIRE is considered to be the tenth plant in a series of commercial reactors. It is, therefore, assumed that a well-established vendor industry exists and that utilities have gained experience with the operation of fusion plants. A major feature for STARFIRE is a steady-state operating mode based on a continuous plasma current drive. An rf lower-hybrid current drive option has received the most attention in the study. The poten- tial advantages of steady-state reactor operation are numerous and are discussed in detail in the next sec- tion. Availability goals have been established as 85% for the reactor and 75% for the complete plant including the reactor. These goals provide a basis for design of maintenance equipment. The maintenance scenario incorporates the current utility practice of shutting down annually for one month and a four month shut- down approximately every five to ten years. An important design consideration is the choice of the plasma impurity and alpha-particle removal con- cept. Initial investigations indicate that modest pum- ping of helium with a limiter/pumping system (~25% of the alpha-particle flux) coupled with about a 1.5-T margin in the maximum toroidal field should elimi- nate the need for a divertor. This result is based on the provision that a significant portion of the alpha- particle heating power can be radiated to the first wall rather than be deposited on the limiter. In general, a non-divertor option is greatly preferred from an overall reactor engineering point of view. Another key design consideration is the location of the equilibrium field (EF) coils. The basic design approach is to locate almost all the EF coils outside of the toroidal field (TF) coils. All such EF coils would be superconducting. A limited number of seg- mented copper coils are located inside the TF coils, but outside of the blanket and shield. Safety has played a major role in considering various blanket options. Solid tritium breeders are being emphasized in this study. In addition, efforts are being made to minimize the tritium inventory in the plasma exhaust processing systems and the radio- activity induced in the materials in the magnets and shield. Section 2 presents the rationale for key design choices and provides an overview of the STARFIRE reference design. Section 3 describes the highlights of the major reactor subsystems and the maintenance approach is discussed in section 4. Details of the STARFIRE study are given in ref. [1]. 2. Overview of the reactor concept This section presents an overview of the STAR- FIRE reference design. Section 2.1 reviews the key considerations in the design point selection and section 2.2 describes the major features of the refer- ence design. 2.1. Design point selection Extensive system and trade-off studies were per- formed to support the selection process for the major parameters and design features of the STARFIRE commercial reactor. A summary of key results is presented in this subsection. 2.1.1. Reactor power A survey of anticipated utility requirements in the STARFIRE time frame indicated power units of 1000- 1500 MWe are most desirable. The fusion power was selected as 3490 MW which results in 4000 MW ther- mal power and 1200 MW of net electrical output. 2.1.2. Plasma burn


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