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WATER RECLAMATION IN THURSTON COUNTY:

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WATER RECLAMATION IN THURSTON COUNTY: A REVIEW OF LOTT’S PLANNED CLASS A WATER EXPANSION by Kathryn Ann Smith A Thesis: Essay of Distinction Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Environmental Study The Evergreen State College 2009 by Kathryn Ann Smith. All rights reserved.This Thesis for the Master of Environmental Study Degree by Kathryn Ann Smith has been approved for The Evergreen State College by ___________________________________ Edward Whitesell, PhD Member of the Faculty ________________________ DateABSTRACT WATER RECLAMATION IN THURSTON COUNTY: A REVIEW OF LOTT’S PLANNED CLASS A WATER EXPANSION Kathryn Ann Smith The Lacey, Olympia, Tumwater and Thurston County (Washington State) Alliance (LOTT) plans expansion of its reclaimed water service to the Tumwater Valley Golf Course and eventually to other areas of the county. Non-potable use of reclaimed water is a way to mitigate the impacts of reduced snow pack in a warmer world and protect valuable riparian habitat. Safety and environmental concerns exist with regard to reclaimed water expansion including microbial organisms, inorganic nutrient, organic compounds and pharmaceuticals/personal care products. A variety of water reclamation facilities exist throughout the U.S. and in other areas of the world and those facilities manage to produce reclaimed water that is below the level of concern for contaminants. By reviewing treatment methods and efficiencies in other parts of the U.S. and comparing those methods and efficiencies with LOTT, it is possible to evaluate how LOTT’s operations measure up to those facilities. LOTT operates a state-of-the-art facility that produces a high quality, safe product and its planned expansion will help preserve precious water resources in the South Sound region of Washington.iv Table of Contents Chapter 1 Introduction ...........................................................................1 Chapter 2 Background ...........................................................................8 Chapter 3 Case Study Reviews ...........................................................24 Chapter 4 LOTT Plant Operations ........................................................41 Chapter 5 Comparative Analysis ........................................................52 Chapter 6 Conclusion ...........................................................................60 References ..............................................................................................63v LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Budd Inlet Plant and the Capitol Campus ............................4 Figure 2: Deschutes Parkway Reclaimed Water Line ...........................6 Figure 3: Origin and Fate of PPCPs in the Environment .....................23 Figure 4: Budd Inlet Discharge ..............................................................43 Figure 5: Wastewater Treatment Plant Flow.........................................46 Figure 6: Bardenpho Four Stage Biological Treatment.....................49 LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Water reuse categories and typical applications .................3 Table 2: Estimate of Percent Removal of Selected Microbial Pathogens Using Conventional Treatment Processes..............16 Table 3 Orange County Injection Requirements ...............................32 Table 4: Hawks Prairie Reclaimed Water Satellite Ground Water Quality Criteria …………………………………..............................35 Table 5 Yelm Groundwater Monitoring Comparison (Averages)....................................................................................36 Table 6: PPCPs in Wells Adjacent to Sequim WWTP Water-Reuse Project ………………………………………………..........................38 Table 7: NPDES Permit Summary, Budd Inlet Treatment Plant, Effective October 1, 2005............................................................44vi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Ted Whitesell, my reader, for helping me through this process. I am quite confident it would not have been completed without your help. I am extremely grateful to many of the faculty at Evergreen for sharing their knowledge and passion for the topics covered. I want to thank my MES cohort who always challenged me and inspired me in the classroom. I would also like to thank the faculty and staff at Clover Park Technical College where I work. With the Faculty at CPTC, I owe special thanks to Dorene DeMars who helped me out with a particular problem I was having with this thesis! I received tremendous support, both financial and in time, from CPTC Administration (Dr. John Walstrum, Lori Banaszak, Joyce Loveday) to complete this program and without that support I would not have participated in the MES program. I thank the CPTC Foundation for financial assistance as well. I owe a tremendous debt to my family for supporting me in this endeavor – it has been a long four years. I must thank my partner, Dan, for putting up with me all this time. I want to thank my mother for always having faith in my abilities. And to my dad, thank you for always being my biggest cheerleader. I wish you were here to see this.1 1. INTRODUCTION Water is a resource necessary for life on our planet. In Western Washington, residents are very fortunate that water is an abundant commodity, continually renewed by rainfall and snowmelt. Concerns are mounting regarding the potential effects of global climate change and how that phenomenon could affect our sources of water (WA DOE 2005). Models indicate that the Pacific Northwest will receive less winter precipitation as snow and more rain in the coming decades due to climate change. As a result of warming trends, western Washington will have less snow accumulation accompanied by higher winter stream flows, followed by earlier spring snowmelt and earlier peak stream flows. As a result of earlier melting of the snow pack, the summer stream flows will be reduced (CIG 2009). While water sources are expected to drop, the population is expected to increase (WA DOE 2005). If summer stream flows do decrease as modeling suggests, riparian habitats could be threatened. Maintaining adequate stream flows for fish runs is also a concern in western Washington. As riparian habitats may be threatened by reduced flow, it would be irresponsible to continue pulling water from rivers and


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