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UNCW EDN 203 - Standardized Testing

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Classroom Assessment, Grading, and Standardized TestingFocus QuestionsWhat Would You Do?Basics of AssessmentFormative and Summative AssessmentNorm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced TestingAssessing Assessments: Reliability and ValidityUsing Tests from TextbooksObjective TestingEssay TestsEvaluating EssaysAuthentic AssessmentPortfoliosExhibitionsInformal AssessmentsNorm-Referenced v. Criterion Referenced GradingEffects of Grading on StudentsGrades and MotivationBeyond Grading: Communicating with FamiliesStandardized TestingTypes of ScoresNormal DistributionPercentile Rank ScoresOther ScoresInterpreting Standardized Test ReportsAccountability and High-Stakes TestingProblems with High Stakes TestingUse High-Stakes Tests WellHelp Students with Disabilities with High-Stakes TestsDiversity and ConvergencesEducational Psychology, ALE, 11th EditionISBN 0137144547© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.Classroom Assessment, Grading, and Standardized TestingCluster 14Modules 38 – 40Educational Psychology, ALE. 11th EditionAnita WoolfolkISBN 0135094100© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.All Rights Reserved.2Focus QuestionsHow will you test students on a unit of work?How can you evaluate tests that accompany textbooks and teachers’ manuals?How should you create multiple-choice and essay tests for your subject area?Will you use authentic assessment approaches, including portfolios, performances, exhibitions, and scoring rubrics?What are the potential positive and negative effects of grades on students?What are examples of criterion-referenced and norm-referenced grading systems?How will you explain your grading system to parents or caregivers who do not understand their children’s grades?Educational Psychology, ALE. 11th EditionAnita WoolfolkISBN 0135094100© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.All Rights Reserved.3What Would You Do?Refer to page 603 Teacher’s CasebookWhat would be your major graded assignments and projects?Would you include credit for behaviors such as group participation and effort?How would you put all the elements together to determine a grade for every student for every marking period?How would you justify your system to the principal and to students’ families?How will these issues affect the grade levels you will teach?Educational Psychology, ALE. 11th EditionAnita WoolfolkISBN 0135094100© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.All Rights Reserved.4Basics of AssessmentMeasurementQuantitativeProcess of gathering information about students’ learningFormalInformalEducational Psychology, ALE. 11th EditionAnita WoolfolkISBN 0135094100© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.All Rights Reserved.5Formative and Summative AssessmentFormative AssessmentOccurs before or during instructionSummative AssessmentOccurs after instructionEducational Psychology, ALE. 11th EditionAnita WoolfolkISBN 0135094100© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.All Rights Reserved.6Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced TestingNorm-ReferencedComparison based on average performance of othersCriterion-ReferencedComparison based on set standardEducational Psychology, ALE. 11th EditionAnita WoolfolkISBN 0135094100© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.All Rights Reserved.7Assessing Assessments: Reliability and ValidityReliabilityLikelihood that scores remain constant across time and conditionsValidityLikelihood that test is measuring what it is intended to measureError in scoresHigher reliability=lower errorEducational Psychology, ALE. 11th EditionAnita WoolfolkISBN 0135094100© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.All Rights Reserved.8Using Tests from TextbooksDesigned for the typical classroomDo test questions match what teacher focused on in class?Educational Psychology, ALE. 11th EditionAnita WoolfolkISBN 0135094100© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.All Rights Reserved.9Objective TestingMultiple Choice, Matching, True/FalseStemDistractorsUsed by half of teachers, even though 3/4 of education professors reject themEducational Psychology, ALE. 11th EditionAnita WoolfolkISBN 0135094100© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.All Rights Reserved.10Essay TestsShould be focused on important, complex learning objectivesStudents require more time to answerExpectations should be clearEducational Psychology, ALE. 11th EditionAnita WoolfolkISBN 0135094100© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.All Rights Reserved.11Evaluating EssaysUse scoring criteria (rubrics) to help eliminate subjectivityGrade all responses to one question before moving to other questionsAsk students to put name on back of paperHave a second reader check for reliabilityEducational Psychology, ALE. 11th EditionAnita WoolfolkISBN 0135094100© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.All Rights Reserved.12Authentic AssessmentRequire students to apply skills as they would in real lifeIncludes assessment on writing, speaking, listening, creating, critical thinking, research, and applicationEducational Psychology, ALE. 11th EditionAnita WoolfolkISBN 0135094100© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.All Rights Reserved.13PortfoliosA systematic collection of workIncludes work in progress, revisions, work analysis, and self-reflectionsDocument learning and progressEducational Psychology, ALE. 11th EditionAnita WoolfolkISBN 0135094100© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.All Rights Reserved.14ExhibitionsPublic display of workA culminating experienceIssues of equity should be consideredJudgment should be kept as objective as possibleEducational Psychology, ALE. 11th EditionAnita WoolfolkISBN 0135094100© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.All Rights Reserved.15Informal AssessmentsJournalsChecklistsObservationsRating scalesEducational Psychology, ALE. 11th EditionAnita WoolfolkISBN 0135094100© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.All Rights Reserved.16Norm-Referenced v. Criterion Referenced GradingNorm-referenced gradingStudent standing compared to other studentsCriterion-referenced gradingStudent standing compared to a set standard or list of accomplishmentsEducational Psychology, ALE. 11th EditionAnita WoolfolkISBN 0135094100© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.All Rights Reserved.17Effects of Grading on StudentsValue of failingSome failure may be beneficialRetention in grade20% of high-school seniors have been “held back”Affiliated with dropout, low self-esteem, lack of job opportunitiesEducational Psychology, ALE. 11th EditionAnita WoolfolkISBN


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