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Whitman ECON 102 - Exam

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Whitman CollegeEcon 102Exam 2March 12, 2009Write all answers on the exam. Show all of your work. The exam ends at 11:50.1. (20pts) For each of the following transactions, identify whether it appears in the calculation of the United States Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as part of consumption (C), investment (I), government purchases (G), exports (EX), or imports (IM). If all or part of the transaction needs to be accounted for in more than one category, check each applicable box. If the transaction is not part of the calculation of U.S. GDP, then don’t check any box. In these examples, Darnell and Hilary live and work in Pennsylvania. Hilary’s father, Emil, lives and works in Sweden. Transaction C I G EX IMDarnell buys a bottle of French wine.Hilary’s father orders a bottle of Vermont maple syrup to be shipped to him in Sweden.The Federal Aviation Administration expands the runways at the Philadelphia International airport using materials made in the U.S.Darnell’s employer upgrades its office computer systems using components made in Germany.Hilary gets a haircut from her local barber.Nike, an American company, produces a pair of sneakers at a plant in Vietnam. It sells the shoes in Japan.Hilary’s father mails her a present of Swedish chocolates.Hilary makes a vase for herself using a cherry tree from her property.Nike, an American shoe company, produces a pair of sneakers at a plant in Vietnam. It sells the shoes to Darnell. Darnell buys a latte from a Starbucks store near his home in Pennsylvania. Starbucks is an American-owned company.Emil buys a latte from a Starbucks store near his home in Sweden. Hilary sells Starbucks stock to Darnell.Hilary builds a home and sells it to Darnell. Darnell sells his old home to his neighbor.General Motors, an American company, builds several SUVs in Detroit and then puts them into its inventory.12. (a) (10pts) Consider golfers who led the PGA in winnings at different points in time. The table below shows the nominal winnings for some of these golf champions. Convert these nominal winnings into 2006 dollars, and fill in the table.Year Golfer NominalWinningsConsumer PriceIndex(1983=100)Winnings in 2006 Dollars1973 Jack Nicklaus $308,362 44.41980 Tom Watson $530,808 82.42000 Tiger Woods $9,188,321 172.22006 Tiger Woods $9,941,563 201.6 $9,941,563(b) (10pts) In 2007, the Consumer Price Index was 207.3. What was the annual inflation rate from 2006 to 2007?23. (12pts) Consider the following information about a hypothetical country that does not engage in international trade. Use the data from the table and your knowledge of national income accounting identities to fill in the table.Category ValueInvestment (I) $2,000Taxes minus Transfer Payments (T) $1,900Consumption (C) $4,100Government Purchases (G)Gross Domestic Product (Y) $8,200Private SavingsPublic (i.e. Government) Savings3(b) (3pts) Is this government running a balanced budget, a budget deficit, or a budget surplus?4. Consider the inflation uncertainty experiment from class on February 26. In Period 9, the inflation rate could be any integer value between -2% and 8%, with each of those rates equally likely. In this period, Lender G lent to Borrower 4 at a nominal interest rate of 5.0%. (a) (5pts) From Lender G’s perspective, what would be the worst possible outcome for inflation in Period 9? What would real interest rate would Lender G receive in this case?(b) (5pts) From Borrower 4’s perspective, what would be the worst possible outcome for inflation in Period 9? What would real interest rate would Borrower 4 pay in this case?Lender G had the option of taking his own investment project rather than lending. G’s project provided a real return of 1.0%, whereas Borrower 4’s project provided a real return of 3.0%. In Period 9, the actual inflation rate ended up being -1%.(c) (5pts) G’s project offered him a guaranteed real return, something we call a hedge against inflation. In Period 9, would G have been better off if he had financed his own project, thereby hedging against inflation, rather than making the loan that he did? Explain.4continuedBefore Period 10 began, prospective lenders and borrowers found out that the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve had gotten a new chairman, someone whose inflation-fighting stance was unclear. In Period 10, G did not lend and 4 did not borrow. In fact, the total amount of lending dropped in half between Period 9 and Period 10, going from eight loans to four. (d) (5pts) Why did so many people stop using the credit markets in Period 10?5continued(e) (10pts) Using G and 4 as an example, describe what it cost this society to have the extra inflation uncertainty that came with the transition to a new, relatively unknown, Fed Chairman. 65. Consider the following information, which is an abridged version of an article that appeared March 10, 2009 in the Wall Street Journal. Obama Is Free Trade's Best HopeBy GERALD F. SEIBEconomic strains are increasing the temptation to wall off the American economy from the rest of the world, particularly among members of Mr. Obama's Democratic Party.That temptation is growingat an especially dangerous time, as slumping global trade is emerging as a forcethat could make today's economic mess much deeper and long-lasting.So the economic case for free trade is getting stronger, even as it is politically more difficult to make that case to stressed-out Americans. It may be 7that only a Democratic president who has established his populist credentials on other fronts has the credibility to make the case for open trade in a time of crisis.As it happens, the Obama administration has prime opportunities coming up todo exactly that. Finance ministers from the so-called Group of 20 nations meet next weekend. Mr. Obama and the heads of other G-20 nations gather in the first week of April.Meanwhile, a new report from the World Bank underscores the broader threat from a combination of slumping trade and rising protectionism. Because of falling global demand, the report says, world trade volumes are likely to decline this year for the first time since 1982, and the overall decline figures to be the largest in 80 years.This falloff hits particularlyhard in developing countries -- which count on selling their products to the more prosperous developing world -- but also goes beyond them. As the report notes, 70% of global trade is between advanced countries.With trade

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