New version page

Sac State GEOL 10 - Sediment and Sedimentary Rocks

Documents in this Course
Load more
Upgrade to remove ads
Upgrade to remove ads
Unformatted text preview:

PowerPoint PresentationSlide 2Slide 3Slide 4Slide 5Slide 6Slide 7Slide 8Slide 9Slide 10Slide 11Slide 12Slide 13Slide 14Slide 15Tim Horner, CSUS Geology DepartmentSediment and Sedimentary RocksPhysical Geology, Chapter 6Intro to Sedimentary Rocks•Produced from weathering products of pre-existing rocks or accumulated biological matter –Detrital (clastic) rocks produced from rock fragments–Chemical rocks produced by precipitation of dissolved ions in water–Organic rocks produced by accumulation of biological debris, such as in swamps or bogs•Sedimentary rock types and sedimentary structures within the rocks give clues to past environments •Fossils in sedimentary rocks give clues to the history of life•Important resources (coal, oil) are found in sedimentary rocksSediment•Sediment - loose, solid particles originating from: –Weathering and erosion of pre-existing rocks–Chemical precipitation from solution, including secretion by organisms in water•Classified by particle size –Boulder - >256 mm–Cobble - 64 to 256 mm–Pebble - 2 to 64 mm–Sand - 1/16 to 2 mm–Silt - 1/256 to 1/16 mm–Clay - <1/256 mmGravelFrom Sediment to Sedimentary Rock•Transportation –Movement of sediment away from its source, typically by water, wind, or ice–Rounding of particles occurs due to abrasion during transport–Sorting occurs as sediment is separated according to grain size by transport agents, especially running water–Sediment size decreases with increased transport distance•Deposition –Settling and coming to rest of transported material–Accumulation of chemical or organic sediments, typically in water–Environment of deposition is the location in which deposition occurs•Deep sea floor•Beach•Desert dunes•River channel•Lake bottomFrom Sediment to Sedimentary Rock•Preservation–Sediment must be preserved, as by burial with additional sediments, in order to become a sedimentary rock•Lithification –General term for processes converting loose sediment into sedimentary rock–Combination of compaction and cementationFrom Sediment to Sedimentary RockTypes of Sedimentary Rocks•Detrital (clastic) sedimentary rocks–Most common sedimentary rock type–Form from cemented sediment grains that come from pre-existing rocks•Chemical sedimentary rocks–Have crystalline textures–Form by precipitation of minerals from solution•Organic sedimentary rocks–Accumulate from remains of organismsClastic Sedimentary Rocks•Breccia and Conglomerate–Coarse-grained clastic sedimentary rocks–Sedimentary breccia composed of coarse, angular rock fragments cemented together–Conglomerate composed of rounded gravel cemented together•Sandstone–Medium-grained clastic sedimentary rock–Types determined by composition•Quartz sandstone - >90% quartz grains•Arkose - mostly feldspar and quartz grains•Graywacke - sand grains surrounded by dark, fine-grained matrix, often clay-richClastic Sedimentary Rocks•Shale–Fine-grained clastic sedimentary rock–Splits into thin layers (fissile)–Silt- and clay-sized grains–Sediment deposited in lake bottoms, river deltas, floodplains, and on deep ocean floor•Siltstone–Slightly coarser-grained than shales–Lacks fissility•Claystone –Predominantly clay-sized grains; non-fissile•Mudstone–Silt- and clay-sized grains; massive/blockyChemical Sedimentary Rocks•Carbonates–Contain CO3 as part of their chemical composition–Limestone is composed mainly of calcite•Most are biochemical, but can be inorganic•Often contain easily recognizable fossils•Chemical alteration of limestone in Mg-rich water solutions can produce dolomite•Chert–Hard, compact, fine-grained, formed almost entirely of silica–Can occur as layers or as lumpy nodules within other sedimentary rocks, especially limestones•Evaporites –Form from evaporating saline waters (lake, ocean)–Common examples are rock gypsum, rock saltOrganics in Sedimentary Rocks•Coal–Sedimentary rock forming from compaction of partially decayed plant material–Organic material deposited in water with low oxygen content (i.e., stagnant)•Oil and natural gas–Originate from organic matter in marine sediment–Subsurface “cooking” can change organic solids to oil and natural gas–Can accumulate in porous overlying rocksSedimentary Structures•Sedimentary structures –Features within sedimentary rocks produced during or just after sediment deposition –Provide clues to how and where deposition of sediments occurred•Bedding–Series of visible layers within a rock–Most common sedimentary structure•Cross-bedding–Series of thin, inclined layers within a horizontal bed of rock–Common in sandstones–Indicative of deposition in ripples, bars, dunes, deltasSedimentary Structures•Ripple marks–Small ridges formed on surface of sediment layer by moving wind or water•Graded bedding–Progressive change in grain size from bottom to top of a bed•Mud cracks–Polygonal cracks formed in drying mud•Fossils–Traces of plants or animals preserved in rock–Hard parts (shells, bones) more easily preserved as fossilsSedimentary Rock Interpretation•Sedimentary rocks give important clues to the geologic history of an area•Source area–Locality that eroded and provided sediment–Sediment composition, shape, size and sorting are indicators of source rock type and relative location•Depositional environment–Location where sediment came to rest–Sediment characteristics and sedimentary structures (including fossils) are indicators–Examples: glacial valleys, alluvial fans, river channels and floodplains, lakes, deltas, beaches, dunes, shallow marine, reefs, deep marinePlate Tectonics and Sedimentary Rocks•Tectonic setting plays key role in the distribution of sedimentary rocks•Occurrence of specific sedimentary rock types can be used to reconstruct past plate-tectonic settings•Erosion rates and depositional characteristics give clues to each type of tectonic plate


View Full Document
Download Sediment and Sedimentary Rocks
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Sediment and Sedimentary Rocks and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Sediment and Sedimentary Rocks 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?