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MSU SW 850 - culture

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1J.T. Stocks, Ph.D. J.T. Stocks, Ph.D.Basic TermsBasic Terms((LumLum))!Ethnicity- identity based upon ancestry, nationality, or race.!Minority- status of being discriminated against.!Culture- the way of life of a society."Individual"Shared!Multiculturalism- the coexistence of many cultures as a recognized part of society.!Diversity- covers differences in and among societal groups.J.T. Stocks, Ph.D.Overview of CultureOverview of Culture!Ethnography!Demographics!Status!AffiliationsJ.T. Stocks, Ph.D.How Cultures WorkHow Cultures Work!Cultural System- A set of individuals sharing similar attitudes, expectations, and opinions.!Cultural Values- The attitudes, expectations, and opinions that serve to determine the degree to which an individual belongs to a particular cultural system.J.T. Stocks, Ph.D.Fusion Versus PluralismFusion Versus Pluralism!“Melting Pot” vs. Procrustean Bed -"Producing a new and better amalgam from the best of contributing cultures"Enforcing dominant culture conformity!“Salad Bowl” vs. “Sack of Cats” -"Willingness of all groups to seek amicable accord based upon mutual respect "Ethnic conflictJ.T. Stocks, Ph.D.Cultural Assimilation Cultural Assimilation and Acculturationand Acculturation!Cultural Assimilation refers to a process by which a person uses the beliefs and practices of the dominant culture as a reference, and accepts, modifies, or rejects those of one’s own group.!Acculturationrefers to using the beliefs and practices of one’s own group as the reference point, and adopting, modifying, or rejecting the beliefs of the dominant culture.2J.T. Stocks, Ph.D.EthnocentrismEthnocentrism(Daniels & (Daniels & D’AndreaD’Andrea))Ethnocentrism is the belief in the superiority of a set of values and a worldview that evolves from one’s own cultural, ethnic, or racial group.J.T. Stocks, Ph.D.Cognitive Dimensions of EthnocentrismCognitive Dimensions of Ethnocentrism!Biases in Psychological Theories (Sue, Ivey, & Pedersen)!Biases in Research(Sue, Ivey, & Pedersen)!Ethnocentrism in Counselor Training(Daniels & D’Andrea)J.T. Stocks, Ph.D.Affective Dimensions of Ethnocentrism:Affective Dimensions of Ethnocentrism:Sense of LossSense of Loss((KublerKubler--Ross; Daniels & Ross; Daniels & D’AndreaD’Andrea))!Denying That a Problem Exists: "“Good counseling is good counseling.”!Expressing Anger:"“All this noise about multiculturalism is a fad and I am tired of it.”!Bargaining: "“We should teach multicultural counseling, but we don’t need to do it in all courses.”!Expressing Guilt without Action: "“Awareness of multicultural issues is important. I wish I had the time to participate in workshops that would help me to improve.”!Accepting and Supporting:"“I learned a great deal from the workshop. In fact, I learned how much more I need to know.”J.T. Stocks, Ph.D.Defining Cultural CompetenceDefining Cultural Competence(Sue)(Sue)“Color Blind”!Treat all clients equally!All clients are essentially alike“Culturist”!Dominant culture is superior!Clients must adopt dominant cultureCultural Competence!Clients from different ethnic groups have unique strengths and characteristics as well as similarities.J.T. Stocks, Ph.D.Culture Is ComplexCulture Is ComplexBasic Capabilities For Culturally- Sensitive Work!Ability to identify a large number of relevant cultural factors.!Ability to monitor the changing importance of these factors from moment to moment.J.T. Stocks, Ph.D.Barriers to CrossBarriers to Cross--Cultural Cultural CommunicationCommunication((BarnaBarna; Pedersen & Ivey); Pedersen & Ivey)!Assuming Nonexistent Similarities!Verbal language Problems!Nonverbal Language Problems!Preconceptions & Stereotypes!Premature Conclusions!Stress!Organizational Constraints3J.T. Stocks, Ph.D.3 Stages of Culturally3 Stages of Culturally--Sensitive WorkSensitive Work(Sue)(Sue)!Culturally Aware!Culturally Knowledgeable!Culturally SkilledJ.T. Stocks, Ph.D.Culturally Aware WorkersCulturally Aware Workers!Aware of own cultural background!Aware of assumptions and values socialized by that background!Comfortable with cultural differences between workers and clients!Sensitive to circumstance that may require referral to a culturally-similar workerJ.T. Stocks, Ph.D.Culturally Knowledgeable WorkersCulturally Knowledgeable Workers!Understand the role of minorities relative to the dominant culture!Know about the culture of their clients!Have a clear and explicit knowledge of the relevant practice literature!Know about institutional barriers that block minorities from using services appropriatelyJ.T. Stocks, Ph.D.Culturally Skilled Workers Culturally Skilled Workers !Have a wide repertoire of verbal and nonverbal responses appropriate to a wide range of cultures!Accurately send and receive culturally appropriate verbal and nonverbal messages!Work to change systems with/on behalf of a client when the client is right and the system is wrong.J.T. Stocks, Ph.D.Factor Analysis of Cultural DifferencesFactor Analysis of Cultural Differences((HofstedeHofstede))!Small versus Large Power Distance!Weak versus Strong Uncertainty Avoidance!Low versus High Individualism!Low versus High “Masculine”J.T. Stocks, Ph.D.Four “Synthetic” CulturesFour “Synthetic” Cultures(Pedersen & Ivey)(Pedersen & Ivey)!Alpha- High Power Distance!Beta - Strong Uncertainty Avoidance!Gamma- High Individualism!Delta- Highly “Masculine”4J.T. Stocks, Ph.D.Alpha CultureAlpha Culture!Inequalities are expected and desired!Less powerful people are dependent upon more powerful!Parents teach children to obey!Children respect parents and teachers!Teachers take initiative in class!Teachers transfer wisdom!Everyone values authority!Centralization is popular!Subordinates expect directionJ.T. Stocks, Ph.D.Alpha (Power Distance) Cultural GridAlpha (Power Distance) Cultural GridBehavior ExpectationSoft-spoken, polite, listening FriendlyQuiet, polite, not listening UnfriendlyAsk for help and direction TrustDo not ask for help and direction DistrustPassive, but no eye contact InterestExpressionless, unanimated, but with eye contact BoredomJ.T. Stocks, Ph.D.Beta CultureBeta Culture!Life is uncertain and poses a continuous threat!Aggression and emotion may be displayed at proper times and places!What is different is dangerous!Students are comfortable in structured learning situations and concerned with right answers!Teachers have the answers!There is an emotional need for rules even if


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