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MIT ESD 34 - System Architecture

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System Architecture IAP Lecture 2Today’s Topics¿ Reflections on Definitions?Architecture¿ Form - Reflections?Form TopicsDuality of Physical and Informational FormClasses of Structural ConnectionsSpatial/Topological Structure - WhistleOPM Object-Object Structural LinksStructural Link ExamplesSpacial/Topological Structure - Whistle - “List”Implementation Structure - WhistleImplementation Structure - Whistle - “List”Issues RaisedThe Whole Product SystemAccountability for the Whole Product SystemUse ContextUse Context Informs DesignBoundaries and InterfacesCamera - Whole Product & BoundariesOp Amp - Whole Product System Amp - Whole Product and BoundariesAmp - Whole Product System Boundary and InterfacesSoftware - Boundaries and InterfacesWhole Product System - Code BubblesortStatic Graphical User Interface - Whole Product?Form of Whole Product - QuestionsCharacterizationStateArchitectureFunction TopicsFunction - DefinedFunction - DescribedEmergenceFunction Emerges as Form AssemblesForm - Function SequenceExercise: Reverse Engineering of FunctionFunction = Process + OperandProcessesAbout ProcessesThe OperandValue Related OperandCamera - Value Related Operand?External Function Produces BenefitExternally Delivered FunctionExternally Delivered FunctionForm Enables ProcessThree Core IdeasSemantically Exact Representation with OPMValue Related State Representation with OPMA Tool - Object Process ModelingOPM Process LinksValueValue and ArchitectureValue - Questions?Externally Delivered Function Emerges from Internal FunctionExternally Delivered and Internal FunctionExternally Delivered and Internal FunctionInternal Functions - Questions?Delivered and Internal Function - WhistleDelivered and Internal Function - AmpDelivered and Internal Function - BubblesortReference PDP¿Reference PDP?Goals of a Structured PDPKey Assumptions of U&E PDPPDP In the SMALL v. In the LARGESummary - Reference PDPSummary to Date1Massachusetts Institute of Technology © Ed Crawley 2007System ArchitectureIAP Lecture 2Ed CrawleyJanuary 11, 2007Rev 2.02Massachusetts Institute of Technology © Ed Crawley 2007Today’s Topicsz Definitions - Reflectionsz Form z Functionz Reference PDP - “In the Small”3Massachusetts Institute of Technology © Ed Crawley 2007¿ Reflections on Definitions?z Systemz Complexz Value z Productz Principle/Method/Tool4Massachusetts Institute of Technology © Ed Crawley 2007Architecturez Consists of:– Function– Related by Concept– To FormFormFunctionConcept5Massachusetts Institute of Technology © Ed Crawley 2007¿ Form - Reflections?z What is the form of simple systems?z How did you express the decompositional view?z How did you represent the graphical structural view?z How did you represent the list like structural view?z What do the lines in the graphical view, or connections in the list view represent? Is it form?z Did you identify classes of structural relations?6Massachusetts Institute of Technology © Ed Crawley 2007Form Topicsz Representing form and structurez Whole product system and use contextz Boundaries and Interfacesz Attributes and states7Massachusetts Institute of Technology © Ed Crawley 2007Representations of FormForm can be represented by:• Words (in natural language - nouns)• Code• Illustrations, schematics, drawings• Each discipline has developed shorthand for representing their discipline specific formBut the form is the actual suggested physical/informational embodiment.8Massachusetts Institute of Technology © Ed Crawley 2007Duality of Physical and Informational Formz Physical form can always be represented by informational form (e.g. a building and a drawing of a building)z Informational form must always be stored or encoded in physical form (data in a CD, thought in neurons, poetry in print)z So there is a duality of the physical and informational world (styled after the duality of particles and waves)9Massachusetts Institute of Technology © Ed Crawley 2007Classes of Structural Connectionsz Connections that are strictly descriptions of form:– Relative spatial location or topology (e.g. above, is next to, is aligned with, is within, overlaps with, etc.) which refers to previous arranging process– Information about assembly/implementation (e.g. connected to, bolted to, compiled with, etc.) which refers to previous assembling/implementing processz Connections that are description of functionwhile operating (still to be discussed)10Massachusetts Institute of Technology © Ed Crawley 2007Spatial/Topological Structure - WhistleBumpCavityHoleRamp StepChannelProduct/system boundaryBumpCavitywallHoleRampStepChannelTouchesIs a boundary of TouchesIs a boundary ofTouchesIs a boundary Is aligned with Is a boundary ofFigure by MIT OCW.11Massachusetts Institute of Technology © Ed Crawley 2007z Defined: A structural link is the symbol that represents a binary relationship between two objects.z There is also a backward direction relation.z Usually it is only necessary to show one, and the other is implicit.OPM Object-Object Structural Links12Massachusetts Institute of Technology © Ed Crawley 2007Structural Link ExamplesCapacitor ResistorIs connected toChair TableIs underWheels Axelare bolted toDisk Bladescontacts25Data ArrayIs stored in nSpatial(under)Topological(within)Topological(touching)ImplementationImplementation13Massachusetts Institute of Technology © Ed Crawley 2007Spacial/Topological Structure - Whistle -“List”Bump Channel Ramp Hole Step CavityBumptouchesChanneltouches touchesRamptouches Is bounded byIs bounded bytouchesHole Is a boundary ofIs aligned withIs a boundary ofStepIs a boundary ofIs aligned withIs a boundary of Cavitytouches Is bounded byIs bounded by z “N-squared” matrix representation gives a list-like representation of connectivity (read from left row-wise)z Symmetric (with transformation like “surrounds” to “within”, “is a boundary of” to “is bounded by”)z Is non-causal - no sense of anything happening before anything else14Massachusetts Institute of Technology © Ed Crawley 2007Implementation Structure - WhistleBumpCavityHoleRamp StepChannelProduct/system boundaryBumpCavitywallHoleRampStepChannelMech. integralMech. integralMech. integralMech. integralMech. integralFigure by MIT OCW.15Massachusettsshowing one in the upp Institute of Technology © Ed Crawley 2007er and one in the lower diagonalImplementation Structure - Whistle - “List”Bump Channel Ramp Hole Step CavityBumpMech.


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