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WMU EVAL 6000 - Lecture Notes

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Slide 1AgendaSlide 3Biographical SketchRossi’s View of EvaluationRossi’s InfluenceRossi’s Major ContributionsRossi’s Theory of Social ProgrammingRossi’s Theory of Knowledge ConstructionRossi’s Theory of ValuingRossi’s Theory of Knowledge UseRossi’s Theory of Evaluation PracticeEvaluation Theory TreeUse-Oriented TheoristsSlide 15Use-Oriented TheoriesSlide 17Utilization-Focused EvaluationUtilization-Focused EvaluationSituational AnalysisSituational AnalysisSlide 22Participatory EvaluationParticipatory EvaluationSlide 25Improvement- and Accountability-Oriented ApproachesImprovement- and Accountability-Oriented ApproachesDecision- and Accountability-Oriented StudiesDecision- and Accountability-Oriented StudiesCIPP ModelCIPP ModelEncyclopedia EntriesEVAL 6000: Foundations of EvaluationDr. Chris L. S. CorynKristin A. HobsonFall 2011Agenda•Stage Three theories–Peter Rossi•Use-oriented theories and theorists–Utilization-focused evaluation–Michael Patton–Participatory Evaluation–Brad Cousins•Questions and discussion•Encyclopedia of Evaluation entries“Evaluation research is more that the application of methods…it is also a political and managerial activity, an input into…policy decisions and allocations”— Peter H. RossiBiographical Sketch•Born in 1921 in New York City•Ph.D. in Sociology, Columbia University•B.S. in Sociology, City College•Professor Emeritus of Sociology at University of Massachusetts and held positions as Harvard, University of Chicago, and Johns Hopkins University•Published numerous books, research monographs and articles•Led many high-stakes national-level evaluationsRossi’s View of Evaluation•Influenced by Campbell, Cronbach, and Scriven•Major function of social research in public policy formulation and change is to evaluate the effectiveness of public programs•Emphasis on empirically testing social theories as part of program evaluationRossi’s Influence•Extensive and diverse•Sociological (e.g., books on life histories of American families)•Methodological (e.g., survey research)•Primarily evaluation theory and methodologyRossi’s Major Contributions•Tailored evaluation•Comprehensive evaluation•Theory-driven evaluation•Demystification•The “good enough” rule•The metallic and plastic laws of evaluationRossi’s Theory of Social Programming•Social interventions are conservative and incremental•Central task is to design programs that serve the disadvantaged well•Recognizes the political and economic constraints placed on social programsRossi’s Theory of Knowledge Construction•Both realist and empiricists in orientation•Simultaneously emphasizes fallibilism and multiplism•Questions the philosophical warrants for a singular epistemology, and questions the legitimacy and value of epistemology more generallyRossi’s Theory of Valuing•Similar to Scriven in many respects•Social need is a crucial criterion for value claims•Integrates both prescriptive and descriptive theories (though never clear in explication of how to integrate)Rossi’s Theory of Knowledge Use•Distinguishes between instrumental, conceptual, and persuasive uses•Not clear about contingencies to guide choices to facilitate types of use•Demystification (e.g., the nature of social problems and their amelioration) has been criticized for being too “scientistic”Rossi’s Theory of Evaluation Practice•Clearly describes trade-offs and priorities depending on various circumstances (e.g., innovations, modifications, established programs)•Recognizes constraints associated with trade-offs and priorities (e.g., comprehensive versus tailored evaluations)•See Table 9.1, p. 383Evaluation Theory TreeUse-Oriented TheoristsFetterman King Preskill“This class of theories [use] are concerned with designing evaluation that are intended to decision making…to ensure that evaluation results have a direct impact on decision making and organizational change”— Marvin C. AlkinUse-Oriented Theories•Originated from decision-oriented theories•Decision-oriented theorists emphasize evaluation as assisting key decision makers in making informed decisions•Evaluations should be designed to ensure direct impact on decision making and organizational change“Evaluations should be judged by their utility and actual use…[and]… evaluators should facilitate the evaluation process and design any evaluation with careful consideration of how everything that is done, from beginning to end, will affect use”— Michael Q. Patton•Explicitly geared to ensure that evaluations make an impact and are used•Evaluation is guided in collaboration with a targeted group of priority usersUtilization-Focused EvaluationUtilization-Focused Evaluation•All aspects are chosen and applied to help targeted users obtain and apply evaluation findings to their intended use and maximize the likelihood that they will•In the interest of getting findings used, draws on any legitimate evaluation approachSituational Analysis•What decisions, if any, are the evaluation findings expected to influence?•When will decisions be made? By whom? When, then, must the evaluation findings be presented to be timely and influential?•What is at stake in the decisions? For whom? What controversies or issues surround the decision?•What is the history and context of the decision-making process?•What other factors (values, politics, personalities, promises already made) will affect the decision making?Situational Analysis•How much influence do you expect the evaluation to have—realistically?•To what extent has the outcome of the decision already been determined?•What data and findings are needed to support decision making?•What needs to be done to achieve that level of influence?•How will we know afterward if the evaluation was used as intended?“[Practical participatory evaluation]…seeks to understand program with the expressed intention of informing and improving their implementation”— J. Bradley CousinsParticipatory Evaluation•Evaluator works collaboratively in partnership with a select group of intended users •The evaluator’s role is to provide technical support, training, and to assure and maintain quality control•Involves a broad group of stakeholder participantsParticipatory Evaluation•Modified from more limited stakeholder-based aproaches•Stakeholders are engaged in the entire evaluation process (e.g.,


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