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PhilaU SDN 604 - Legislation Lecture Notes

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Slide 1Slide 2Slide 3Slide 4Slide 5Slide 6Slide 7Slide 8Slide 9Slide 10Slide 11Slide 12Slide 13Slide 14Slide 15Slide 16Slide 17Slide 18Slide 19Slide 20Slide 21Slide 22Slide 23Slide 24Slide 25Slide 26Slide 27Slide 28Slide 29Slide 30Slide 31Slide 32Slide 33Slide 34Slide 35Slide 36Slide 37Slide 38Slide 39Slide 40Slide 41Slide 42Slide 43Slide 44Slide 45Slide 46Slide 47Slide 48Slide 49Slide 50Slide 51Slide 52Slide 53Slide 54Slide 55Slide 56Slide 57Slide 58LegislationCompliance•Be aware of directives or other binding controls that affect the materials and processes you use•Understand what is required to comply with the directives and controls•Have (or develop) tools to make compliance as painless as possible•Explore ways to make compliance profitable rather than a burden; •exploit compliance information as a marketing tool for exampleHistorical approach to environmental law•Ignore it: pretend it isn’t there.•Dilute it: make the stack taller; pump it further out to sea•Fix it where it is a problem: the “end of pipe” approach•Prevent it in the first place: The first appearance of design for the environment•Sustainable Development: life in equilibrium with the environment (where we are now)What to do•It is difficult to negotiate enforceable treaties that bind all nations of the planet to a single course of action.•Agreements, Declaration of Intents and Protocols get proposed for signature.Sources•Protcols can derive from printed materials, conferences, and other sources.•Some critical triggers for protocols are presented next1962Rachel Carson, Silent SpringExamination of the consequences of DDT and the impact of technology on the environment1972Club of Rome Limits to Growththe report that triggered the first of a sequence of debates in the 20th century on the ultimate limits imposed by resource depletion.1972The Earth Summit in StockholmThe first conference convened by the United Nations to discuss the impact of technology on the environment.•Principle 21: The right to exploit one’s own environmentStockholm Declaration1987The UN World Commission on Environment and Development Our Common FutureKnown as the Brundtland Report, it defined the principle of sustainability as “Development that meets the needs of today without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”•Precautionary Principle: While there are possibilities of large irreversible impacts, the lack of scientific certainty should not stop preventive action from being takenWCED Report1987Montreal ProtocolThe International Protocol to phase out the use of chemicals that deplete ozone in the stratosphere•Ozone depletion allows UV radiation to reach the surface of Earth, damaging living organisms. The culprits are typified as chloroflourocarbons (CFCs) that were widely used as refrigerants and blowing agents for polymer foams, particularly for house insulation.Montreal Protocol1992Rio DeclarationAn international statement of the principles of sustainability, building on those of the 1972 Stockholm Earth Summit.•Principle 2: The right to development without damage to othersRio Declaration1998Kyoto ProtocolAn international treaty to reduce the emissions of gases that cause climate change•Sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European Community that have signed it, committing them to reduce greenhouse gas emissions over the five year period 2008-2012Kyoto Protocol2001Stockholm ConventionThe first of ongoing meetings to agree on an agenda for the control and phase-out of persistent organic pollutants (POPs)2001IPCC Fourth Assessment Report Climate Change 2007: The Physical BasisThis report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) establishes correlation between carbon in the atmosphere and climate changeNational Legislation•Usually quite dense and specific. •Four broad forms:•Setting up standards•Voluntary agreements negotiated with industry•Binding legislation that imposes requirements with penalties if they are not met•Economic instruments that seek to use market forces to induce change: taxes, subsidies, and trading schemesStandards•ISO 14000 - Environmental Management systems•ISO 14040, 41, 42, 43 - broad procedures for the steps shown in a previous lecture about life cycle assessment•ISO 14025 - guides reporting LCA data as an Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) or Climate Declaration (CD)•Communicate information about environmental performance of products as a “declaration”•The data used must follow ISO 14040 family and validated by 3rd party.•The EPD describes the output of a full LCA or part of one.•The CD is limited to emissions that contribute to global warming: CO2, CO, CH4, and N2OISO 14025•Aimed to internalize costs and conserve materials•Increase manufacturers’ responsibilities.Voluntary Agreements and binding legislationUS RCRA•Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, EPA 1976•Protect the public from harm caused by waste disposal•Encourage reuse, reduction and recycling•Clean up spilled or improperly stored wasteThe solid waste program, under RCRA Subtitle D, encourages states to develop comprehensive plans to manage nonhazardous industrial solid waste and municipal solid waste; sets criteria for municipal solid waste landfills and other solid waste disposal facilities; and prohibits the open dumping of solid waste.1.The hazardous waste program, under RCRA Subtitle C, establishes a system for controlling hazardous waste from the time it is generated units its ultimate disposal – in effect, from "cradle to grave".2.The underground storage tank (UST) program, under RCRA Subtitle I, regulates underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances and petroleum products.US EPA 35/50 CFR•Code of Federal Regulation (1988), protection of the environment identified 16 priority chemicals with the aim of reducing industrial toxicity by voluntary action over a 10 year periodVOCs ApplicationsBenzene Intermediate production of styrene, thus many polymersCarbon tetrachloride solvent for metal degreasing, lacquers, dry-cleaningChloroform SolventMethyl ethyl ketonesolvent for metal degreasing, lacquersTetrachloroethylene Solvent for metal degreasingToluene SolventTrichlorethylene Solvent, base of adhesivesXylenes Lacquers, rubber adhesivesToxic Metals/Salts ApplicationsAsbestosfibro-board reinforcement, thermal and electrical insulationAntimony Bearing, pigments in

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