New version page

jsda011001006

Upgrade to remove ads

This preview shows page 1-2-3 out of 10 pages.

Save
View Full Document
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 10 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 10 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 10 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience

Upgrade to remove ads
Unformatted text preview:

Journal of Social Development in Africa (1996), 11.1.33-42Social Work Education for SocialDevelopment *M GRAY, F MAZIBUKO & F O'BRIEN **ABSTRACTSocial work as a profession has an obligation to respond to and, if necessary create,societal agendas. Social development is clearly on the current societal agenda. Thispaper examines the different emphases and levels of social development andadvocates a broad perspective of the concept. The relationship between social de-velopment and social work is then explored. Shared values and goals augur wellfor a constructive relationship. Finally the paper addresses the importance ofeducation for social workers to participate in social development initiatives.Teaching and practice curricula are discussed as well as different levels of training.The paper concludes with recommendations for future networking, both betweeneducators and disciplines, and research and literature.IntroductionAccording to Ira Goldenberg, professions are shaped by the social and politicalrealities of their time and by the societies of which they are a part (Franklin, 1990).This is clearly evident in the social work profession, which has been characterisedby its focus on particular methods at certain periods in its history. The professionhas either emphasised "private troubles" or "public issues" according to prevail-ing conservative or liberal political ideologies respectively. Integration and bal-ance within the profession continue to present challenges, for both practitionersand teachers. Ongoing attempts to integrate and find balance in the curricula ofeducational institutions are evident (Gray, 1994a; Hutton, 1994). It has beenargued that the profession is unprepared for new societal agendas (Franklin, 1990).The new agenda is clearly social development This paper looks at social develop-ment, the relationship between social work and social development and the meansby which social work educators can better equip new and returning students tocontribute towards the new agenda.* Paper presented at a Conference on Social Development, School of Social Work,Harare, 6 July 1995.** Prof M Gray, Professor & Acting Head of the Department of Social Work, Universityof Natal, South Africa.Ms F Mazibuko, Lecturer, Department of Social Work, University of Natal.Mrs F O'Brien, Academic Supervisor, Department of Social Work, University of Natal.34 M Gray, F Mazibuko & F O'BrienSocial DevelopmentDevelopment seems to mean different things to different people and a singleagreed-upon definition of social development clearly does not exist Some writersdefine development so broadly that it encompasses every aspect of a society'sfunctioning:"..development may be said to represent the entire gamut of changeswhereby an entire social system, attuned to divergent basic needs anddesires of individuals, groups and communities within that system, movesaway from a condition of life widely perceived as 'unsatisfactory' to asituation or condition of life which can be regarded as materially and spiri-tually 'better'" (Varma. 1990:12).Others define it so narrowly that it becomes synonymous with communitydevelopment, a less comprehensive concept than social development and just oneof several strategic approaches to social development Indeed, it may be helpful toconceptualise development as operating on different levels (Burkey, 1993; Cox,1994; Louw, 1993). The macro level is characterised by policy and nationalinitiatives. These include land reform, as part of rural development (Cooper, 1992),and restructuring of expenditure and taxes, necessary for economic development(Bethlehem, 1992). Development at a regional level complements the micro leveland may seek to coordinate scarce resources. The micro level of development isalso referred to as the community or grassroots level. The concepts of people'sparticipation and empowerment are most prominent at this level. Community orgrassroots development may be understood as a "populist strategy" in terms ofMidgley's (1993) ideological classification of social development strategies. Lit-erature is replete with a number of different "types'' of development such as social,economic, political, self-development, human, community and grassroots. Thesetypes may refer to different levels of development, but they may also be differentaspects of development within one level. Burkey (1993) conceptualised socialdevelopment as a process of change starting from individual development of con-fidence, cooperativeness, awareness and skills. With this base, economic andpolitical development could proceed and allow for social development wherebyculturally appropriate social services and institutions could be initiated andmaintained (see Figure 1).Part of the reason for "...confusion about what the social development perspec-tive entails" (Midgely, 1994:177) may be found in historical differences attachedto the concept During the 1950s and 60s, Western development thinking was alongeconomic lines. However, the idea that economic growth (increased savings andSocial Work Education for Social Development 35SOCIAL DEVELOPMENTECONOMICPOLITICALHUMAN DEVELOPMENTFigure 1: Burkey's 1993 conceptualisation of developmentinvestment) would result in development in Third World countries, as it had insome Western economies, proved unfounded. Increased poverty was more thenorm (Burkey, 1993; Lombard, 1991). It became recognised that social andinstitutional change was also required to facilitate social development (Elliott,1993). The 1970s saw the formulation of the basic needs approach which soughtto emphasise the importance of such needs being met (Burkey, 1993). Socialjustice and redistribution emerged as important considerations in the developmentprocess (Elliott, 1993). Debates of that decade considered normative issues, suchas the manner in which development should take place and the desired outcomes.Need-oriented, endogenous, self-reliant and ecologically sound development,based on structural transformation, was advocated. The need for each society tofind its own development strategy, based on its own goals and circumstances, wasrecognised.The 1980s were characterised by worldwide economic problems and develop-ing nations' increasing indebtedness, which led to the imposition of structuraladjustment requirements on the latter (Anheier, 1990). According to Midgley(1994), these circumstances impeded social development efforts. However, thereis now a renewed interest in human beings as the


Download jsda011001006
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view jsda011001006 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view jsda011001006 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?