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Judicial Review

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Chapter 7Judicial ReviewKey QuestionsReview of Rulemaking and Formal APA ProceedingsQuestions of LawDeference - National Labor Relations Board v. Hearst, 322 U.S. 111 (1944)Persuasion - Skidmore v. Swift & Co., 323 U.S. 134, 140 (1944)Chevron U.S.A. Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, 467 U.S. 837 (1984)Chevron Step OneChevron Step TwoWhat does it Mean to Be Silent or Ambiguous?Political Control of AgenciesChapter 7 Part 12Judicial Review"The rules governing judicial review have no more substance at the core than a seedless grape." This is a very unsettling chapter if you are looking for a bright-line test for standards for judicial review. I have heard very respected federal appeals court judges say in public lectures that they have no idea where these tests begin and end.3Key QuestionsIs the court interpreting a law - something that is clearly within its expertise?Does the legal interpretation have policy implications where the court is stepping into political question territory?Is the court reviewing a factual determination by the agency?Is the court reviewing the application of the law to specific facts, i.e., a mixed question?4Review of Rulemaking and Formal APA ProceedingsAPA § 706. Scope of reviewhttp://biotech.law.lsu.edu/Courses/study_aids/adlaw/706.htm5Questions of LawWhat are the different types of questions of law?Why are these essentially facial challenges?Is the agency more expert in law than the court?6Deference - National Labor Relations Board v. Hearst, 322 U.S. 111 (1944) Undoubtedly questions of statutory interpretation, especially when arising in the first instance in judicial proceedings, are for the courts to resolve, giving appropriate weight to the judgment of those whose special duty is to administer the questioned statute. But where the question is one of specific application of a broad statutory term in a proceeding in which the agency administering the statute must determine it initially, the reviewing court's function is limited. . . . [T]he Board's determination that specified persons are 'employees' under this Act is to be accepted if it has 'warrant in the record' and a reasonable basis in law.7Persuasion - Skidmore v. Swift & Co., 323 U.S. 134, 140 (1944) We consider that the rulings, interpretations and opinions of the Administrator under this Act, while not controlling upon the courts by reason of their authority, do constitute a body of experience and informed judgment to which courts and litigants may properly resort for guidance. The weight of such a judgment in a particular case will depend upon the thoroughness evident in its consideration, the validity of its reasoning, its consistency with earlier and later pronouncements, and all those factors which give it power to persuade, if lacking power to control.8Chevron U.S.A. Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, 467 U.S. 837 (1984) Clean Air Act CaseEPA wanted to consider all of the sources of pollution within a given chemical plant as one source - the bubble modelWhat would be the advantage of this for EPA?Why would environmentalists oppose it?The statute did not give clear guidanceWhat should the court do?9Chevron Step OneIf the statute speaks clearly to the point, then you have to follow the statuteThis assumes that the statute is constitutionalAs we see in the tobacco case, sometimes clear language is not so clearIf the agency action is clearly within the statute, it is OK.If it is clearly outside the statute, what happens?10Chevron Step TwoIf the statute is silent or ambiguousThis is frequently the case on controversial issuesIf the agency’s interpretation is just one of many allowable interpretations, what should the court do?Decide which is the best interpretation?Defer to the agency – if so, why?Why is deference to the agency the key to political control of agencies?11What does it Mean to Be Silent or Ambiguous?Do you just look at the statute itself?Scalia, usually.Do you include legislative intent?Breyer, usually.12Political Control of AgenciesHow does Chevron deference fit with the political control of agencies?Is this a liberal/conservative


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