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GAVILAN BIO 15 - respiratory study outline

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Chapter 16 - Respiratory System Respiration: The respiratory system consists of tubes that _____________________ incoming air and _____________ it into the microscopic alveoli where gases are ___________________________. What are the three processes of respiration? Respiratory organs: The organs of the respiratory tract can be divided into two groups: the upper respiratory tract (nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, and pharynx), and the lower respiratory tract (larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs). Nose: The nose, supported by ___________ and cartilage, provides an entrance for air in which air is filtered by coarse ________________ inside the nostrils. Nasal cavity: The nasal cavity is a space posterior to the nose that is divided medially by the __________________ __________.Nasal conchae: How many are there? What is their function?Cilia: Particles trapped in the mucus are carried to the ________________by ciliary action, swallowed, and carried to the _____________________ where gastric juice destroys any microorganisms in the mucus. Paranasal sinuses: What four bones are they found in? What is their function?Pharynx:The pharynx is a common passageway for _________________ and ________________ and it aids in producing sounds for ______________________.Larynx: The larynx is an enlargement in the airway superior to the __________________ and inferior to the ______________. It helps keep particles from entering the trachea and also houses the vocal cords. The larynx is composed of a framework of ________________ and ________________ bound by elastic tissue. What is the largest cartilage called ? (hint it is known as the Adam’s apple). Inside the larynx, two pairs of folds of muscle and connective tissue covered with mucous membrane make up the _________________________________. What are the upper pair called? What is their function?What is the lower pair called? Their function?What is the triangular slit called where air passes through?1What closes this space off when swallowing? Trachea: The trachea extends downward anterior to the ___________________and into the thoracic cavity, where it splits into right and left _____________________________.What is the inner wall lined with? Why?The tracheal wall is supported by 20 incomplete cartilaginous rings. Why are they incomplete and not complete?Bronchial tree: The bronchial tree consists of branched tubes leading from the ___________________ to the _______________. The bronchial tree begins with the two primary _______________________, each leading to a lung. Where do these lead? How many are on each side? What are the smallest branches of the bronchial tree called? Do they have cartilage in their walls? Where does the actual gas exchange take place?Lungs:The right and left soft, spongy, cone-shaped lungs are separated medially by the ___________________ and are enclosed by the ____________________ and thoracic cage. The bronchus and large blood vessels enter each lung. A layer of serous membrane, the visceral _________________, attached to the lung, folds back to form the ______________________ ____________________. The __________________ pleura lines the thoracic cavity; serous fluid lubricates the “pleura cavity” between these two membranes. Each lobe is composed of lobules that contain air passages, alveoli, nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and connective tissuesBREATHING: _______________________ (breathing), the movement of air in and out of the lungs, is composed of 2 processes called ___________________ and _________________________.Inspiration: _______________________ pressure is the force that moves air into the lungs. What happens when pressure on the inside of the lungs decreases? Air pressure inside the lungs is decreased by ___________________________ the size of the thoracic cavity; due to surface tension between the two layers of pleura, the lungs follow with the chest wall and ________________. What are the muscles involved in expanding the thoracic cavity? What keeps the alveoli from sticking to each other? Expiration: The forces of expiration are due to the elastic ________________ of lung and muscle tissues and from the surface tension within the alveoli. Forced expiration is aided by ______________________ and abdominal wall muscles that compress the abdomen against the diaphragm.2Respiratory volumes:The measurement of different air volumes is called _________________ and it describes four distinct respiratory volumes.Define each of the following volumes and capacities. tidal volume: (TV) inspiratory reserve volume: (IRV) expiratory reserve volume: (ERV) residual volume: (RV) respiratory capacities:vital capacity (VC):inspiratory capacity:functional residual capacity:total lung capacity: (TLC) anatomical dead space: never gets to lungs Respiratory Control: Normal breathing is a rhythmic, involuntary act even though the muscles are under _______________ control. respiratory center in _______________ & _________________ sends impulses to control respiration. Controlled primarily by levels of _______________ in blood. Levels of _________________ play only a minor role, (only when levels are extremely low). List three things that affect breathing. An inflation reflex, triggered by stretch receptors in the visceral pleura, bronchioles, and alveoli, helps to prevent ____________________ of the lungs during forceful breathing. Hyperventilation lowers the amount of __________________ _____________________ in the blood.Gas Exchange: The ___________________ are the only sites of gas exchange between the atmosphere and the blood. They are tiny sacs clustered at the distal ends of the _____________________ ducts. The _________________________ membrane consists of the epithelial cells of the alveolus, the endothelial cells of 3the capillary, and the two fused basement membranes of these layers. Gases diffuse from areas of ____________________________ pressure to areas of __________________ pressure. In a mixture of gases, each gas accounts for a portion of the total pressure; the amount of pressure each gas exerts is equal to its partial pressure. When the partial pressure of oxygen is higher in the alveolar air than it is in the capillary blood, oxygen will diffuse into the _________________________________. When the partial pressure of carbon dioxide is greater in the blood than in the alveolar air,

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