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NKU PHE 498 - Historical Overview

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Historical OverviewAncient GreeceRenaissance19th Centruy Physical Education Programs in the United StatesHitchcock Dr. Dudley A. Sargent (1849-1924)NormsNorms (cont.)20th CenturyAttributesPhysical Fitness TestingFitness (cont.)Academic Discipline MovementSub Disciplines of StudyExercise PhysiologyGrowth of Sub DisciplinesThe Art and Science of Human MovementHistorical Historical OverviewOverviewPHE 498PHE 498Ancient GreeceAncient Greece Claudius Galen (A.D. 130-200)Claudius Galen (A.D. 130-200)► Studied the relationship Studied the relationship between between health andexercisehealth andexercise► Determined what types of Determined what types of exercise exercise would impart would impart physical changes.physical changes.RenaissanceRenaissance Hieronymous Mercurialis (1530-Hieronymous Mercurialis (1530-1606)1606)►  Rebirth of Greek idealsRebirth of Greek ideals►  Published Published De Arte De Arte GymnasticaGymnastica►  Preventive and Preventive and therapeutic therapeutic exercisesexercises19th Centruy Physical 19th Centruy Physical Education Programs in the Education Programs in the United StatesUnited States Dr. Edward Hitchcock (1828-Dr. Edward Hitchcock (1828-1911) hired in 1861 as 1911) hired in 1861 as Assistant Professor of Physical Assistant Professor of Physical Training and Hygiene at Training and Hygiene at Amherst CollegeAmherst CollegeHitchcockHitchcock►Medical DegreeMedical Degree►First physical educator to receive First physical educator to receive professorial statusprofessorial status►Developed system of Developed system of anthropometrics: measurement of anthropometrics: measurement of man. Used measurements to chart man. Used measurements to chart student progress.student progress.Dr. Dudley A. Sargent Dr. Dudley A. Sargent (1849-1924)(1849-1924)►In 1879 hired as Assistant Professor of In 1879 hired as Assistant Professor of Physical Training and Director of Physical Training and Director of Hemenway Gymnasium at Harvard Hemenway Gymnasium at Harvard UniversityUniversity►Developed over 90 patents for Developed over 90 patents for exercise machines.exercise machines.►Used individual exercises based on Used individual exercises based on anthropometrics.anthropometrics.NormsNorms►Based on data collected by Hitchcock Based on data collected by Hitchcock and Sargent norms were established and Sargent norms were established for college level physical performance.for college level physical performance.►Norms are performance standards Norms are performance standards collected from a large number of collected from a large number of subjects. Norms are based on age, subjects. Norms are based on age, gender, experience, ability, and other gender, experience, ability, and other characteristics.characteristics.Norms (cont.)Norms (cont.)►Norms can be used to create Norms can be used to create standards or expectations of standards or expectations of performance.performance.►Norms can then be used to make Norms can then be used to make realistic standards for students to realistic standards for students to meet.meet.2020thth Century Century►Testing in physical education expanded Testing in physical education expanded to a number of attributes other than to a number of attributes other than anthropometrics.anthropometrics.AttributesAttributes►Classification of Classification of body typesbody types►Body compositionBody composition►PowerPower►AgilityAgility►Motor abilityMotor ability►BalanceBalance►FlexibilityFlexibility►Speed and Reaction Speed and Reaction timetime►StrengthStrength►CV enduranceCV endurance►Sport skillsSport skills►PosturePosture►Social and PsychSocial and Psych►KnowledgeKnowledgePhysical Fitness TestingPhysical Fitness Testing►Military preparedness in WWI and WWIIMilitary preparedness in WWI and WWII►Tests were utilized to determine physical Tests were utilized to determine physical eligibility of draftees.eligibility of draftees.►Kraus-Weber Test: American school aged Kraus-Weber Test: American school aged students were compared to Europeans students were compared to Europeans in 1953.in 1953.►60% of American students failed; 9% of 60% of American students failed; 9% of European students failedEuropean students failedFitness (cont.)Fitness (cont.)►Kraus-Weber test results prompted Kraus-Weber test results prompted President Eisenhower in 1956 to President Eisenhower in 1956 to establish the President’s Council on establish the President’s Council on Youth FitnessYouth Fitness►A national physical fitness test was A national physical fitness test was developeddevelopedAcademic Discipline Academic Discipline MovementMovement►Franklin Henry in a JOHPER in 1964 Franklin Henry in a JOHPER in 1964 stated:" I suggest that there is an stated:" I suggest that there is an increasing need for the organization increasing need for the organization and study of the academic discipline and study of the academic discipline herein called physical education”. herein called physical education”.Sub Disciplines of StudySub Disciplines of Study►Exercise PhysiologyExercise Physiology►BiomechanicsBiomechanics►KinesiologyKinesiology►Motor learningMotor learning►Sport psychologySport psychology►Sport sociologySport sociology►Sport historySport history►Sport philosophySport philosophyExercise PhysiologyExercise Physiology►1954 The American College of Sports 1954 The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) was foundedMedicine (ACSM) was founded►Joseph B. Wolffe, a cardiologist, was Joseph B. Wolffe, a cardiologist, was elected as ACSM’s first president. elected as ACSM’s first president. ►In 1969 ACSM began to publish In 1969 ACSM began to publish Medicine Medicine and Science in Sports.and Science in Sports.►In 1974 ACSM began to certify In 1974 ACSM began to certify practitioners, and now there are six practitioners, and now there are six certification fields.certification fields.Growth of Sub DisciplinesGrowth of Sub Disciplines►North American Society for the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity was founded in 1967. was founded in 1967. Journal of Motor Journal of Motor Behavior Behavior (1968) and the (1968) and the Journal of Sport Journal of


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