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Water Quality: Abbotsford-Sumas Final Report

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Water Quality: Abbotsford-Sumas FinalReportDr. Robert J. Mitchell, Dr. R. Scott Babcock,Ms. Heather Hirsch, and Ms. Leslie McKeeGeology DepartmentandDr. Robin A. Matthews and Ms. Joan VandersypenInstitute for Watershed Studies,Western Washington University∗June 10, 2005∗Funding for this project was provided by the Washington State Department of Ecology. Wethank Marilyn Desmul, Alex Brun, Matthew Burdick, Joan Clark, Becky Rowland, Nathan Shasha,and Asta Sestrap for their assistance with this project.iContents1 Introduction 11.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Study Area Description 32.1 Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.2 Hydrogeology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.3 Climate, Soils, and Recharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52.4 Surface Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.5 Land Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Groundwater Nitrogen Cycle 74 Methods 84.1 Field Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84.2 Analytical Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Groundwater Quality Results 125.1 Nitrate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135.2 Ammonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135.3 Nitrogen Isotopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135.4 Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145.5 Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145.6 pH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145.7 Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155.8 Dissolved Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15ii5.9 Phosphorus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155.10 Iron and Manganese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155.11 Water Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Surface Water Quality Results 176.1 Nitrate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176.2 Ammonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176.3 Nitrogen Isotopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186.4 Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186.5 Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186.6 Fecal Coliforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196.7 Dissolved Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196.8 Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206.9 Phosphorus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206.10 Iron and Manganese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206.11 pH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Groundwater Quality Discussion 217.1 Nitrate Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217.2 Nitrate Stratification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237.3 Nitrate Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237.4 Nitrate Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Surface Water Quality Discussion 279 DNMP Assessment 29iii10 Conclusions 3111 References 3212 Tables 3613 Figures 41A Quality Control 110A.1 Laboratory duplicates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110A.2 Field duplicates . . . . . . . . . . . . …


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