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HYPOTHESIS

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STEPS IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH:Generation of Research HypothesisResearch usually starts with a problem. Questions, objectives and Hypotheses provide a specific restatement and clarificatiCriteria of HypothesesDifference between Hypotheses and ProblemsHypothesis needs to be structured before the data-gathering and interpretation phase of the research:DEFINITIONS OF HYPOTHESISPurpose and Importance of Hypotheses in a Scientific ResearchNULL HYPOTHESISALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESISDIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESISNON-DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESISDERIVATION OF HYPOTHESISDERIVATION OF HYPOTHESISFORMULATION OF HYPOTHESISQUALITATIVE METHODQUANTITATIVEGenerality and Specificity of HypothesesTESTING THE HYPOTHESISTesting a hypothesis involvesNegative FindingsSOURCESSTEPS IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH:ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY REALITYHypothesis is a tentative explanation that accounts for a set of facts and can be tested by further investigation.Generation of Research HypothesisResearch usually starts with a problem. Questions, objectives and Hypotheses provide a specific restatement and clarification of the problem statement/research question.In qualitative research, the research question may assume two forms:The grand tour questionSub questionsCriteria of Problem Statement/Research Question:•Should express a relation between two or more variables.Is A related to B?•Should be clearly stated and unambiguously in question form.“How do incentives affect the performance?”(Question form)“The problem is to question the relation between incentives and performance.“ (Statement form)•Should be such as to imply possibilities of empirical testing.Metaphysical questions, unrelated variables, not measurable and indefinable variables cannot be tested.Criteria of Hypotheses•They should be statements expressing the relation between two or more measurable variables.•They should carry clear implications for testing the stated relations.Difference between Hypotheses and ProblemsProblem is a question and is not testable Hypotheses can be tested Relation between variables in problem statements:Relation between variables in hypotheses:Is A related to B? If A, then B.How are A and B related to C? If A & B then C.How is A related to B under conditions C and D?If A, then B under conditions C and D.Hypothesis needs to be structured before the data-gathering and interpretation phase of the research:• A well-grounded hypothesis indicates that the researcher has sufficientknowledge in the area to undertake the investigation. • The hypothesis gives direction to the collection and interpretation of data.Finding the data first and then formulating the hypothesis is like…. throwing the dice first and then betting.DEFINITIONS OF HYPOTHESIS1. A hypothesis may be precisely defined as a tentative proposition suggested as a solution to a problem or as an explanation of some phenomenon. (Ary, Jacobs and Razavieh, 1984)2. A hypothesis is a conjectural statement of the relation between two or more variables. (Kerlinger, 1956)3. Hypothesis is a formal statement that presents the expected relationship between an independent and dependent variable. (Creswell, 1994)4. Hypothesis relates theory to observation and observation to theory. (Ary, Jacobs and Razavieh, 1984)5. Hypotheses are relational propositions. (Kerlinger, 1956)6. Hypothesis is a tentative explanation that accounts for a set of facts and can be tested by further investigation.THE USABLE HYPOTHESIS• It must have explanatory power.• It must state the expected relationship between variables.• It must be testable.• It should be consistent with the existing body of knowledge.• It should be stated as simply and concisely as possible.Purpose and Importance of Hypotheses in a Scientific Research• It provides a tentative explanation of phenomena and facilitates the extension of knowledge in an area. • It provides the investigator with a relational statement that is directly testable in a research study. • It provides direction to the research.• It provides a framework for reporting conclusions of the study.• It could be considered as the working instrument of theory. Hypotheses can be deduced from theory and from other hypotheses. • It could be tested and shown to be probably supported or not supported, apart from man’s own values and opinions.NULL HYPOTHESISA null hypothesis is a statement that there is no actual relationship between variables. (HO or HN)• A null hypothesis may read, “There is no difference between…..”• Ho states the opposite of what the experimenter would expect or predict.• The final conclusion of the investigator will either retain a null hypothesis or reject a null hypothesis in favor of a alternative hypothesis.• Not rejecting Ho does not really mean that Ho is true. There might not be enough evidence against Ho.• Example:“There is no significant difference in the anxiety level of children of High IQ and those of low IQ.”ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESISAn alternative hypothesis is a statement that suggests a potential outcome that the researcher may expect. (H1 or HA)• Comes from prior literature or studies.• It is established only when a null hypothesis is rejected.• Often an alternative Hypothesis is the desired conclusion of the investigator.• The two types of alternative hypothesis are:Directional HypothesisNon-directional Hypothesis.DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESISIs a type of alternative hypothesis that specifies the direction of expected findings.· Sometimes directional hypothesis are created to examine the relationship among variables rather than to compare groups.· Directional hypothesis may read,”…is more than..”, “…will be lesser..”· Example:“ Children with high IQ will exhibit more anxiety than children with low IQ”NON-DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESISIs a type of alternative hypothesis in which no definite direction of the expected findings is specified.· The researcher may not no what can be predicted from the past literature.· It may read, “..there is a difference between..”· Example:“Thereis a difference in the anxiety level of the children of high IQ and those of lowIQ.”DERIVATION OF HYPOTHESISInductive:Researcher notes the observations of behavior, thinks about the problem, turns to literature for clues, makes additional observations, derives probable relationships, and the hypothesizes an explanation. Hypothesis is then tested.• May be limited in


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