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GVSU EGR 345 - EGR 345 SENSORS AND MORE LABVIEW

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Fall 2002PURPOSE:THEORY:APPARATUS:PROCEDURE:DISCUSSION:CONCLUSION:Grand Valley State UniversityThe Padnos School of EngineeringSENSORS AND MORE LABVIEWEGR 345 Dynamic Systems Modeling and ControlBrad Vander Veen September 19, 2002Lab PartnersAndrew MillsEric Vander ZeeFall 2002PURPOSE:This purpose of this lab is to investigate popular industrial and laboratory sensors. Four different types of sensors will be discussed in this lab, as well as assembled and experimentally tested. THEORY:Sensors are widely used in industry to control systems. Machines on the edge of technology are designed with various sensors to monitor and control the motion of the machine. Some sensors are discrete, which means they are either on or off, while others are continuous, which means they can continuously monitor properties such as displacement or temperature. Both discrete and continuous sensors will be used in this lab.APPARATUS:Here is a list of the apparatus used in our setup (inductive proximity sensor).- CADET Trainer- inductive proximity sensor - Balluff BES 516-325- FLUKE 8050A DIGITAL MULTIMETER- metric scalePROCEDURE:STATION 1: INDUCTIVE PROXIMITY SENSORThis sensor station was setup as shown in Figure 1 below.Figure 1 – Schematic for Inductive Proximity SensorOnce assembled, the proximity sensor was placed in contact with different materials. Results for this test can be seen below in Table 2 Table 2 – Response of Proximity Sensor LEDItem 1: Alligator Clip Item 2: Keyboard Item 3: Keys Item 4: TableResult Group 1: ON OFF ON OFFResult Group 2: ON OFF ON OFFResult Group 3: ON OFF ON OFFResult Group 4: ON OFF ON OFFThe proximity sensor was also placed at various distances from a metallic object. Resultscan be seen below in Table 3 Table 3 – Response of Proximity Sensor LED1/2 Inch 1/4 Inch 1/8 Inch 1/16 Inch In ContactResult Group 1: OFF OFF OFF ON ONResult Group 2: OFF OFF OFF OFF ONResult Group 3: OFF OFF OFF OFF ONResult Group 4: OFF OFF OFF ON ONSTATION 2: ULTRASONIC RANGE SENSORThis sensor station was setup as shown in Figure 4 below.Figure 4 – Schematic for Ultrasonic Range SensorThe sensor was placed at various distances from the floor, and output voltages were read off the digital multi-meter. Results can be seen below in Table 5. Note that the range of the sensor is one meter. Table 5 – Distance vs. Voltage Readings Distance1.9.8.7.6.5.4.3.2.1m Output10.98.06.85.54.43.32.2.900VIn Figure 6 below, the graphical results of this data can be seen.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1024681012Output Voltage v. Distance10.90Output10.1 DistanceFigure 6 – Output Voltage vs. DistanceUsing linear regression, a line of best fit can be found that relates output voltage and displacement. The equation for this line of best fit is:206.*0818.  voltagentdisplacemeSTATION 3: POTENTIOMETERAssemble the potentiometer station as follows: 1. Locate the terminal labeled CCW on the potentiometer and connect it to the voltage on the power supply. 2. Connect the WC on the potentiometer to the multi-meter ground.3. The terminal labeled ‘slide’ is Vout, and must be connected to the multi-meter input.4. By turning the knob at the top of the potentiometer, the reading on the multi-meter will move between 0 and 5 volts.Voltage readings were taken off the multi-meter every half-turn of the potentiometer, and results can be seen below in Table 7.Table 7 – Radians Turned and Corresponding VoltageN01 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 .004.248.538.7711.0311.2821.5261.7682.0182.2562.5252.7703.0283.2703.5123.7604.0274.2584.5014.7534.997Also, this data can be plotted, as seen below in Figure 8.0 20 40 60 800246Number or Turns (radians)Voltage (volts)4.9974 103N1 62.8320N0  Figure 8 – Voltage vs. Radians TurnedUsing linear regression, a line of best fit can be found that relates radians turned and output voltage. The equation for this line of best fit is:0205.*0794.  nedradiansturvoltageSTATION 4: PHOTOELECTRIC SENSORThis sensor station was setup as shown in Figure 9 below.Figure 9 – Photoelectric Sensor SetupWhen the photoelectric sensor output is hooked up to the multi-meter, the sensor responds to the presence of an object placed in front of the sensor. These results can be seen below in Table 10. The first column designates the distance at which the sensor responded as the object was approached. The second column designates the distance atwhich the sensor responded as the object was moved away. The response of the sensor was simply an output voltage equal to the value of the input voltage (10-30V). Table 10 – Response Distance (in mm) D7665711111DISCUSSION:An inductive proximity sensor is a discrete sensor, which responds when a metallic objectis brought very close (within 1 mm) to the tip of the sensor. It responds by sending a “high” signal along the output wire.An ultrasonic range sensor is a continuous sensor, which measures distances from 0-1 meters in displacement. It responds by sending a corresponding voltage along the output wire. By relating the voltage to the distance, very usable information can be produced.A potentiometer is a continuous sensor, which can be used for creating a signal. By utilizing a variable resistor, the potentiometer can create output voltage values from 0-5 Volts, depending on how far the user turns the potentiometer knob. This is a useful tool that could be used for system inputs.The photoelectric sensor is a discrete sensor that can used to respond to the presence of any material. It can detect objects at relatively far distances compared to the inductive proximity sensor (7 mm). CONCLUSION:In this lab, four different types of industrial sensors were experimented with. Each sensorwas assembled, and observations and measurements were taken to see how each sensor responded to different criteria. From our results, it can


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