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Feminist Ideology Genre

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Rhetorical CritiqueGeneric CriticismEdwin Black’s 1965 critique of Neo-AristotelianismExamplesSelecting an ArtifactGeneric Description (inductive reasoning)Generic Participation (deductive reasoning)Generic ApplicationIdeographic CriticismIdeological CriticismImmigrationSlide 12StructuralismOther Forms Ideological CritiqueThe Hegemonic Cultural ViewConfrontational?Selecting an ArtifactAnalyzing the Artifact (2 steps)Analyzing the Artifact (2nd step)Slide 20Feminist CriticismThree stages or “waves” of FeminismFeminism and CommunicationFeminist Critique has:Selecting ArtifactsNaomi Wolf2 steps in Analyzing the ArtifactMY NEW FEMINISM by Adam Strange 1996 48" x 48" Oil on CanvasWorks CitedRhetorical CritiqueGenre Ideology FeminismGeneric Criticism•Not “Common”but GENRE•Communication situations fall into types or categories:–Deliberative-Political–Forensic-Legal–Epideictic-CeremonialEdwin Black’s 1965 critique of Neo-Aristotelianism1. There are a limited number of situations in which a rhetor can find themselves.2. There are limited numbers of ways in which a rhetor can and will respond rhetorically to a given situation.3. The reoccurrence of a given situation type through history will provide a critic with information on rhetorical responses available for the specific situation.Examples•Eulogies–Speeches eulogizing Eleanor Roosevelt, George Harrison, the Columbia astronauts and Ronald Reagan should have commonalities•Songs and Poetry•Political Speeches•Sermons•Advertisements•JeremiadsSelecting an Artifact •Three options:–Generic Description•Artifacts that appear to share similarities across time, especially in nature and function.–Generic Participation•An artifact that is supposed to belong to a genre but doesn’t appear to fit.–Generic Application•An artifact you want to assess how well it functions and conforms to the genre it supposedly belongs.Generic Description (inductive reasoning)1. Observe similarities in rhetorical responses to particular situations.2. Collect artifacts that occur in similar situations of the kind.3. Analyze the artifacts to discover shared characteristics.4. Formulate an organizing principle for the specific genre.Generic Participation(deductive reasoning)1. Describe the perceived situational requirements, the substantive and stylistic strategies, and the organizing principle of the genre.2. Describe the situational requirements, the substantive and stylistic strategies, and the organizing principle of the artifact.3. Compare artifact and genre to see if and how the artifact is indeed part of the genre.Generic Application•The first three steps are the same as Generic Participation: ½Describe both genre and artifact’s:•situational requirements•substantive and stylistic strategies•organizing principle3. Compare artifact and genre4. Evaluate the artifact according to its success in fulfilling the characteristics and goals of its genre.Ideographic CriticismIdeological Criticism•Focus on Beliefs & Values–Social–Political–Economic–Cultural•Who are we/they?•What do we/they stand for?•What are our/their values?•How do we/they relate to others?Immigration•Too many people coming into country.•Immigrants come to live off welfare.•Economic refugees.•Take jobs.•Inner city crime.•Should be deported.•“Real” refugees only.Examples•Patriotism•Anti-Communism•Christian-Right•Multiculturalism•Liberalism•Neo-Conservatism•Anti-Terrorism•SurvivalismA Set Pattern of BeliefsStructuralism•“Go seahawks”•The “Grammars” of systems.•Systematic inventories of elements and their relationships.•Claude Levi-Strauss–The structure and grammar of myth.•Semiotics–The science and analysis of signs.–Words-font styles-camera angles-gestures-clothes-etc.Other Forms Ideological Critique•Marxism–Materialism with capitalistic scapegoat•Deconstructionism–Exposing underlying meanings•Postmodernism–Society has been transformed by media and technology•Culturalism–Oppressive relationshipsThe Hegemonic Cultural View•The privileged cultural view has preeminence.•After 9/11–Should we invade Iraq?–Administration’s view prevaled.•To maintain dominance the hegemonic view must be renewed, reinforced and defended continuously.Confrontational?•The primary goal of the ideological critic is to discover and make visible the dominant ideology or ideologies embedded in an artifact and the ideologies that are being muted in it.•To give voice to those whose interests are not represented.•The aim is the emancipation of the human potential being thwarted by an existing ideology.Selecting an Artifact•Almost any Artifact works–Political texts are common choices–Popular culture artifacts•Advertisements•Television shows•Films•Sports•Concerts and music genres•Coffee houses and Restaurants•PostersAnalyzing the Artifact(2 steps)1. Identify the nature of the ideology–Membership -Who are they? Where are they from? Who belongs? How to become one?–Activities -What do they do? What is expected? Why do they exist?–Goals -Why do we do this? What do they want to accomplish?–Values & Norms –What are the main values? How do they evaluate themselves and others? What should NOT be done?–Position & Relations -What is the social position? Who are the enemies/scapegoats? Who is like them? Who is different?–Resources –What are the essential resources available to them? What do they need?Analyzing the Artifact(2nd step)•Identify the strategies that support the ideology–The rhetorical strategies are almost infinite.–Nature of the ideology –How acceptable is it to others? Who is it acceptable to? Inconsistencies? Contradictions?–Communicative Genre –How do they communicate?–Size of Audience –Mass mediated? Face-to-face?–Content –What do they emphasize? Deemphasize? Hide?–Style –Active or passive? Word/Phrase choices?–Interactional strategies –Body language & clothing? With whom do they identify?Feminist Criticism•Feminist Criticism has its roots in a social-political movement:–feminist or women’s liberation movement–aimed at improving conditions for women•Definitions:–“women and men should have equal opportunities for self-expression”–“movement towards a society where woman can live a full, self-determined life”–“the theoretical study of women’s oppression and strategies to end


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