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Spoken Dialogue for Intelligent Tutoring Systems

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Spoken Dialogue for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Opportunities and ChallengesOutlineWhat is Tutoring?Intelligent Tutoring SystemsTutorial Dialogue SystemsSpoken Tutorial Dialogue SystemsA Brief HistoryPotential Benefits of Speech: ISlide 9Slide 10Potential Benefits of Speech: IIPotential Benefits of Speech: IIIPotential Benefits of Speech: IVWhy Should NLP Researchers Care?Slide 15Slide 16Slide 17Slide 18Two Types of Tutoring CorporaITSPOKE Experimental ProcedureSlide 21Predictive Performance ModelingSlide 23ChallengesFindingsContrasts with Non-Tutorial DialogueSlide 27Slide 28Slide 29Detecting and Responding to Student Affective StatesMonitoring Student State (motivation)Affective Spoken Dialogue Systems: Standard MethodologyChallenge 1: What “emotions” to detect?Slide 34Example Student States in ITSPOKEChallenge 2: How to respond?Example from ITSPOKEUncertainty is also a Learning OpportunityDo Human Tutors Respond to Student Uncertainty?Example Human Tutoring ExcerptBigram Dependency AnalysisBigram Dependency Analysis (cont.)Slide 43Slide 44Challenge 3: Pedagogical versus spoken dialogue performance?Slide 46Slide 47Discourse StructureExploiting Discourse Structure (Motivation)Discourse structure Annotation and TransitionsSlide 51Slide 52FindingsFindings (cont.)Slide 55Summing Up: ISumming Up: IISlide 58AcknowledgementsThank You!Spoken Dialogue for Intelligent Tutoring Systems:Opportunities and Challenges Diane Litman Computer Science DepartmentLearning Research & Development Center University of PittsburghHLT-NAACL 2006Outline Motivation and History The ITSPOKE System and Corpora Opportunities and Challenges– Performance Evaluation– Affective Reasoning– Discourse Analysis Summing UpWhat is Tutoring?•“A one-on-one dialogue between a teacher and a student for the purpose of helping the student learn something.” [Evens and Michael 2006] •Human Tutoring Excerpt [Thanks to Natalie Person and Lindsay Sears, Rhodes College]Intelligent Tutoring Systems Students who receive one-on-one instruction perform as well as the top two percent of students who receive traditional classroom instruction [Bloom 1984]Unfortunately, providing every student with a personal human tutor is infeasible– Develop computer tutors insteadTutorial Dialogue SystemsWhy is one-on-one tutoring so effective? “...there is something about discourse and natural language (as opposed to sophisticated pedagogical strategies) that explains the effectiveness of unaccomplished human [tutors].”[Graesser, Person et al. 2001]Working hypothesis regarding learning gains–Human Dialogue > Computer Dialogue > TextSpoken Tutorial Dialogue SystemsMost human tutoring involves face-to-face spoken interaction, while most computer dialogue tutors are text-based Can the effectiveness of dialogue tutorial systems be further increased by using spoken interactions?A Brief History 1970 – Mid 1980s–SCHOLAR (Carbonell) –WHY (Stevens and Collins) –SOPHIE (Burton and Brown)–Meno-Tutor (Woolf and McDonald) …Late 1980s - 1990s–CIRCSIM-Tutor (Evens, Michael and Rovick)–SHERLOCK II (Lesgold) –Unix Consultant (Wilensky et al. )–EDGE (Cawsey) …Currently…–Why2-AutoTutor (Graesser et al.) (speech synthesis)–Why2-Atlas (VanLehn et al.)–CyclePad (Rose et al.)–Beetle (Moore et al.)–DIAG-NLG (Di Eugenio)–SCoT (Peters et al.) (spoken dialogue)–ITSPOKE (Litman et al.) … (spoken dialogue)Potential Benefits of Speech: ISelf-explanation correlates with learning [Chi et al. 1994] and occurs more in speech [Hausmann and Chi 2002]–Tutor: The right side pumps blood to the lungs, and the left side pumps blood to the other parts of the body. Could you explain how that works?–Student 1 (self-explains): So the septum is a divider so that the blood doesn't get mixed up. So the right side is to the lungs, and the left side is to the body. So the septum is like a wall that divides the heart into two parts...it kind of like separates it so that the blood doesn't get mixed up... –Student 2 (doesn’t self-explain): right side pumps blood to lungsPotential Benefits of Speech: ISelf-explanation correlates with learning [Chi et al. 1994] and occurs more in speech [Hausmann and Chi 2002]–Tutor: The right side pumps blood to the lungs, and the left side pumps blood to the other parts of the body. Could you explain how that works?–Student 1 (self-explains): So the septum is a divider so that the blood doesn't get mixed up. So the right side is to the lungs, and the left side is to the body. So the septum is like a wall that divides the heart into two parts...it kind of like separates it so that the blood doesn't get mixed up... –Student 2 (doesn’t self-explain): right side pumps blood to lungsPotential Benefits of Speech: ISelf-explanation correlates with learning [Chi et al. 1994] and occurs more in speech [Hausmann and Chi 2002]–Tutor: The right side pumps blood to the lungs, and the left side pumps blood to the other parts of the body. Could you explain how that works?–Student 1 (self-explains): So the septum is a divider so that the blood doesn't get mixed up. So the right side is to the lungs, and the left side is to the body. So the septum is like a wall that divides the heart into two parts...it kind of like separates it so that the blood doesn't get mixed up... –Student 2 (doesn’t self-explain): right side pumps blood to lungsPotential Benefits of Speech: IISpeech contains prosodic information, providing new sources of information about the student for dialogue adaptation [Fox 1993; Litman and Forbes-Riley 2003; Pon-Barry et al. 2005]A correct but uncertain student turn–ITSPOKE: How does his velocity compare to that of his keys?–STUDENT: his velocity is constantPotential Benefits of Speech: IIISpoken computational environments may foster social relationships that may enhance learning–AutoTutor [Graesser et al. 2003]Potential Benefits of Speech: IV•Some applications inherently involve spoken language–Spoken Conversational Interface for Language Learning [Thanks to Stephenie Seneff, MIT and Cambridge]–Reading Tutors [Mostow, Cole]•Others require hands-free interaction–Circuit Fix-It Shop [Smith 1992]Why Should NLP Researchers Care?Many reasons why tutoring researchers are interested in spoken dialogue Why should spoken dialogue researchers become interested in tutoring?–Tutoring


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