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MARIETTA EDUC 253 - Autism Spectrum Disorders

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Autism Spectrum DisordersDSM-IV DefinitionsIDEA DefinitionCharacteristicsScreeningDiagnosisPrevalence and CausesEducational ApproachesEducational Approaches (continued)Current Issues and Future TrendsAutism Spectrum DisordersWilliam L. HewardExceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8eCopyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.DSM-IV DefinitionsAutistic Disorder - marked by three defining features, with onset before age: 1) impaired social interaction, 2) impaired communication, and 3) restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activitiesAsperger Syndrome - impairments in all social areas, particularly an inability to understand how to interact sociallyRhett’s Syndrome - a distinct neurological condition that begins between 5 and 30 months of age, marked by a slowing of head growth, stereotypic hand movements, and severe impairments in language and coognitive abilitiesChildhood disintegrative disorder - shares characteristics with autistic disorder, but doesn’t begin until after the age of 2 and sometimes not until age 10Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) - diagnosis given to children who meet some, but not all, of the criteria for autistic disorder.William L. HewardExceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8eCopyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.IDEA DefinitionAutism is a developmental disability affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally before age 3, that adversely affects a child’s performance.William L. HewardExceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8eCopyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.Characteristics• Impaired social relationships• Many children with autism do not speak. Echolalia is common among those who do talk• Varying levels of intellectual functioning, uneven skill development• Unusual responsiveness to sensory stimuli• Insistence on sameness• Ritualistic and stereotypic behavior• Aggressive or self-injurious behaviorWilliam L. HewardExceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8eCopyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.Screening• Early diagnosis is highly correlated with dramatically better outcomes• Autism can be reliably diagnosed at 18 months of age– Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT)– Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT)William L. HewardExceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8eCopyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.Diagnosis•Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS)•Autism Diagnostic Interview—Revised •Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS)•Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale (ASDS)William L. HewardExceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8eCopyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.Prevalence and CausesPrevalence• Recent estimates - Autism occurs in as many as 1 in 500 people• Boys are affected about 4 times more often than girls• Autism is the fastest-growing category in special educationCauses• The cause of autism is unknown• There is a clear biological origin of autism in the form of abnormal brain development, structure, and/or neurochemistry• No evidence of childhood vaccinations causing autismWilliam L. HewardExceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8eCopyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.Educational ApproachesApplied Behavior Analysis (ABA)–Discrete Trial Training–Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)–Peer-mediated interventions–Errorless discrimination learning–Generalization–Functional assessment of challenging behavior–Pivotal response intervention–Naturalistic language strategiesWilliam L. HewardExceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8eCopyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.Educational Approaches (continued)• Social stories• Picture activity schedulesEducational Placement Alternatives• Regular Classroom• Resource RoomWilliam L. HewardExceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8eCopyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.Current Issues and Future Trends•Although some children with autism have progressed so significantly that they no longer carry the diagnostic label, the opinions of experts differ greatly on the issue of recovery from autism•A serious problem in the field of autism is the popularity of unproven educational interventions and therapies•Parents and professionals should select autism treatments on the basis of careful and systematic evaluations of the scientific evidence of their effects and benefitsWilliam L. HewardExceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8eCopyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights


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