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# Lecture Notes

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% This is LLNCS.DOC the documentation file of% the LaTeX2e class from Springer-Verlag% for Lecture Notes in Computer Science, version 2.4\documentclass{llncs}\usepackage{llncsdoc}%\begin{document}\markboth{\LaTeXe{} Class for Lecture Notes in ComputerScience}{\LaTeXe{} Class for Lecture Notes in Computer Science}\thispagestyle{empty}\begin{flushleft}\LARGE\bfseries Instructions for Authors\\Coding with \LaTeX\\[2cm]\end{flushleft}\rule{\textwidth}{1pt}\vspace{2pt}\begin{flushright}\Huge\begin{tabular}{@{}l}\LaTeXe{} Class\\for Lecture Notes\\in Computer Science\\[6pt]{\Large Version 2.4}\end{tabular}\end{flushright}\rule{\textwidth}{1pt}\vfill\begin{flushleft}\large\itshape\begin{tabular}{@{}l}{\Large\upshape\bfseries Springer}\\[8pt]Berlin\enspace Heidelberg\enspace New\kern0.1em York\\[5pt]Barcelona\enspace Budapest\enspace Hong\kern0.2em Kong\\[5pt]London\enspace Milan\enspace Paris\enspace\\[5pt]Santa\kern0.2em Clara\enspace Singapore\enspace Tokyo\end{tabular}\end{flushleft}\newpage%\section*{For further information please contact us:}%\begin{flushleft}\begin{tabular}{[email protected]{\quad}[email protected]{\hspace{3mm}}[email protected]{\quad}l}$\bullet$&\multicolumn{3}{@{}l}{\bfseries Springer-\kern-2pt VerlagHeidelberg}\\[1mm]&\multicolumn{3}{@{}l}{Department New Technologies/ProductDevelopment}\\&\multicolumn{3}{@{}l}{Springer-Verlag, Postfach 105280, D-69042Heidelberg1, FRG}\\[0.5mm] & Telefax: & (0\,62\,21)487688\\ & & (0\,62\,21)487366\\ & Internet: & \tt [email protected] & for editorial questions\\ & & \tt [email protected] & for \TeX{} problems\end{tabular}\end{flushleft}\rule{\textwidth}{1pt}%\section*{Acceptable formats of your disk/magnetic tape and output:}%The following formats are acceptable: 5.25$^{\prime\prime}$ disketteMS-DOS, 5.25$^{\prime\prime}$ CP/M, 3.5$^{\prime\prime}$ disketteMS-DOS, 3.5$^{\prime\prime}$ diskette Apple MacIntosh, 9-track 1600bpi magnetic tape VAX/VMS, 9-track 1600 bpi magnetic tape ANSI withlabel, SUN-Streamer Tape.Once you have completed your work using this macro package,please submit your own printout of the {\em finalversion together with the disk or magnetic tape}, containing your\LaTeX{} input (source) file und the final DVI-file and make surethat the text is {\em identical in both cases.}\bigskipThis macro package, as well as all other macro packages, stylefiles, and document classes that Springer distributes, are alsoavailable through our mailserver (for people with only e-mail access).{\tt [email protected]}\hfil first try the \verb|help|command.\noindent We are also reachable through the world wide web:\begin{flushleft}\tt\begin{tabular}{@{}[email protected]{\quad}[email protected]{\tt:}l}\rmfamily URLs are & http&//www.springer.de \\ & gopher&//ftp.springer.de \\ & ftp&//ftp.springer.de\end{tabular}\end{flushleft}%\newpage\tableofcontents\newpage%\section{Introduction}%Authors wishing to code their contributionwith \LaTeX{}, as well as those who have already coded with \LaTeX{},will be provided with a document class that will give the text thedesired layout. Authors are requested toadhere strictly to these instructions; {\em the classfile must not be changed}.The text output area is automatically set within an area of12.2\,cm horizontally and 19.3\,cm vertically.If you are already familiar with \LaTeX{}, then theLLNCS class should not give you any major difficulties.It will change the layout to the required LLNCS style(it will for instance define the layout of \verb|\section|).We had to invent some extra commands,which are not provided by \LaTeX{} (e.g.\\verb|\institute|, see also Sect.\,\ref{contbegin})For the main body of the paper (the text) youshould use the commands of the standard \LaTeX{} article'' class.Even if you are familiar with those commands, we urge you to readthis entire documentation thoroughly. It contains many suggestions onhow to use our commands properly; thus your paperwill be formatted exactly to LLNCS standard.For the input of the references at the end of your contribution,please follow our instructions given in Sect.\,\ref{refer} References.The majority of these hints are not specific for LLNCS; they may improveyour use of \LaTeX{} in general.Furthermore, the documentation provides suggestions about the properediting and useof the input files (capitalization, abbreviation etc.) (seeSect.\,\ref{refedit} How to Edit Your Input File).%\section{How to Proceed}%The package consists of the following files:\begin{flushleft}\begin{tabular}{@{}p{2.5cm}l}{\tt history.txt}& the version history of the package\\[2pt]{\tt llncs.cls} & class file for \LaTeX{}\\[2pt]{\tt llncs.dem} & an example showing how to code the text\\[2pt]{\tt llncs.doc} & general instructions (source of this document),\\ & {\tt llncs.doc} means {\itshape l\/}atex {\itshape doc\/}umentation for\\ & {\itshape L\/}ecture {\itshape N}otes in {\itshape C\/}omputer {\itshape S\/}cience\\{\tt llncsdoc.sty} & class modifications to help for the instructions\\{\tt llncs.ind} & an external (faked) author index file\\{\tt subjidx.ind} & subject index demo from the Springer book package\\{\tt llncs.dvi} & the resultig DVI file (remember to use binary transfer!)\\[2pt]{\tt sprmindx.sty} & supplementary style file for MakeIndex\\ & (usage: {\tt makeindex -s sprmindx.sty <yourfile.idx>})\end{tabular}\end{flushleft}%\subsection{How to Invoke the LLNCS Document Class}%The LLNCS class is an extension of the standard \LaTeX{} article''document class. Therefore you may use all article'' commands for thebody of your contribution to prepare your manuscript.LLNCS class is invoked by replacing article'' by llncs'' in thefirst line of your document:\begin{verbatim}\documentclass{llncs}%\begin{document} <Your contribution>\end{document}\end{verbatim}%\subsection{Contributions Already Coded with \protect\LaTeX{} withoutthe LLNCS document class}%If your file is already coded with \LaTeX{} you can easilyadapt it a posteriori to the LLNCS document class.Please refrain from using any \LaTeX{} or \TeX{} commandsthat affect the layout or formatting of your document (i.e. commandslike \verb|\textheight|, \verb|\vspace|, \verb|\headsep| etc.).There may nevertheless be exceptional occasions on which touse some of them.The LLNCS document class has been carefully designed to produce theright layout from your \LaTeX{} input. If there is anything specific youwould like to do and for which the style file does not provide