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WWU CHEM 121 - Chapter 2: The Components of Matter

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Slide 1Fig. 2.1Slide 3Fig. 2.2Slide 5Slide 6Fig. 2.4Slide 8Slide 9Slide 10Slide 11Slide 12Slide 13Slide 14Slide 15Slide 16Slide 17Slide 18Slide 19Rutherford ExperimentSlide 21Slide 22Slide 23Slide 24Slide 25Slide 26Neutral ATOMSSlide 28Isotopes of HydrogenElement #8 : Oxygen, IsotopesSlide 31Slide 32Slide 33Slide 34Slide 35Slide 36DefinitionsSlide 38Slide 39Slide 40Slide 41Slide 42Slide 43Slide 44Slide 45Slide 46Slide 47Slide 48Slide 49Slide 50Slide 51Slide 52Slide 53Slide 54Slide 55Slide 56Slide 57Slide 58Slide 59Slide 60Slide 61Slide 62Slide 63Slide 64Examples of Names and Formulas of Oxoanions and Their Compounds - IExamples of Names and Formulas of Oxoanions and Their Compounds - IISlide 67Slide 68Determining Names and Formulas of Anions and AcidsSlide 70Slide 71Slide 72Slide 73Slide 74Calculate the Molecular Mass of Glucose: C6H12O6Slide 76Slide 77Slide 78Slide 79Slide 80Slide 81Slide 82Slide 83Slide 84Chapter 2: The Components of Matter2.1: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures: An Atomic Overview2.2: The Observations That Led to an Atomic View of Matter2.3: Dalton’s Atomic Theory2.4: The Observations That Led to the Nuclear Atom Model2.5: The Atomic Theory Today2.6: Elements: A First Look at the Periodic Table2.7: Compounds: Introduction to Bonding2.8: Compounds: Formulas, Names, and Masses2.9: Mixtures: Classification and SeparationFig. 2.1Definitions for Components of MatterPure Substances - Their compositions are fixed! Elements and compounds are examples of Pure Substances.Element - Is the simplest type of substance with unique physical and chemical properties. An element consists of only one type of atom. It cannot be broken down into any simpler substances by physical or chemical means.Molecule - Is a structure that is consisting of two or more atoms that are chemically bound together and thus behaves as an independent unit.Compound - Is a substance composed of two or more elements that are chemically combined.Mixture - Is a group of two or more elements and/or compounds that are physically intermingled.Fig. 2.2(p. 43)Fig. 2.3Separating a MixtureFig. 2.4Laws of Mass Conservation & Definite CompositionLaw of Mass conservation: The total mass of substances does not change during a chemical reaction.Law of Definite ( or constant ) composition: No matter what its source, a particular chemical compound is composed of the same elements in the same parts (fractions) by mass.The Meaning of Mass Fraction and Mass PercentFig. 2.5Mass Percent Composition of Na2SO4Na2SO4 = 2 atoms of Sodium + 1 atom of Sulfur + 4 atoms of OxygenElemental masses2 x Na = 2 x 22.99 = 45.981 x S = 1 x 32.07 = 32.074 x O = 4 x 16.00 = 64.00142.05Percent of each ElementCheck% Na + % S + % O = 100%32.37% + 22.58% + 45.05% = 100.00%Mass Percent Composition of Na2SO4Na2SO4 = 2 atoms of Sodium + 1 atom of Sulfur + 4 atoms of OxygenElemental masses2 x Na = 2 x 22.99 = 45.981 x S = 1 x 32.07 = 32.074 x O = 4 x 16.00 = 64.00142.05Percent of each Element%Na = Mass Na / Total mass x 100%% Na = (45.98 / 142.05) x 100% =32.37%% S = Mass S / Total mass x 100%% S = (32.07 / 142.05) x 100% = 22.58%% O = Mass O / Total mass x 100%% O = (64.00 / 142.05) x 100% = 45.05% Check% Na + % S + % O = 100%32.37% + 22.58% + 45.05% = 100.00%Calculating the Mass of an Element in a Compound Ammonium NitrateAmmonium Nitrate = NH4NO3How much Nitrogen is in 455 kg of Ammonium Nitrate?The Formula Mass of Cpd is:4 x H = 4 x 1.008 = 4.032 g2 x N = 2 X 14.01 = 28.02 g3 x O = 3 x 16.00 = 48.00 g 80.052 gTherefore gm Nitrogen/ gm CpdCalculating the Mass of an Element in a Compound Ammonium NitrateAmmonium Nitrate = NH4NO3How much Nitrogen is in 455 kg of Ammonium Nitrate?The Formula Mass of Cpd is:4 x H = 4 x 1.008 = 4.032 g2 x N = 2 X 14.01 = 28.02 g3 x O = 3 x 16.00 = 48.00 g 80.052 gTherefore gm Nitrogen/ gm Cpd28.02 g Nitrogen80.052 g Cpd = 0.35002249 g N / g Cpd455 kg x 1000g / kg = 455,000 g NH4NO3455,000 g Cpd x 0.35002249 g N / g Cpd = 1.59 x 105 g Nitrogen 28.02 kg Nitrogen 80.052 kg NH4NO4= 159 kg Nitrogen 455 kg NH4NO3 Xor:Fig. 2.7Law of Multiple ProportionsIf elements A and B react to form two compounds,the different masses of B that combine with a fixed mass of A can be expressed as a ratio of small wholenumbers:Example: Nitrogen Oxides I & IINitrogen Oxide I : 46.68% Nitrogen and 53.32% OxygenNitrogen Oxide II : 30.45% Nitrogen and 69.55% Oxygenin 100 g of each Compound: g O = 53.32 g & 69.55 g g N = 46.68 g & 30.45 g g O /g N = 1.142 & 2.2842.284 21.142 1=Dalton’s Atomic Theory1. All matter consists of atoms.2. Atoms of one element cannot be converted into atoms of another element.3. Atoms of an element are identical in mass and other properties and are different from atoms of any other element.4. Compounds result from the chemical combination of a specific ratio of atoms of different elements.The Combining Volumes of Hydrogen and Oxygen in the Formation of Water VaporFig. 2.8Fig. 2.9Fig. 2.11Rutherford Experiment•Alpha particles bombarding the atom.•Rationale - to study the internal structure of the atom, and to know more about the mass distribution in the atom!•Bombarded a thin Gold foil with Alpha particles from Radium.Fig. 2.12Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937)•Won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908•“It was quite the most incredible event..... It was almost as if a gunner were to fire a shell at a piece of tissue and the shell bounced right back!!!!! ”Fig. 2.13Properties of the Subatomic Particles Name Charge Mass Location(Symbol) Relative Absolute Relative(amu) Absolute In AtomProton 1 + 1.60218 x 10-19 C* 1.00727 1.67262 x 10-24 g Nucleus (P +)Neutron 0 0 1.00866 1.67593 x 10-24 g Nucleus (n o)Electron 1 - -1.60218 x 10-19 C* 9.10939 x 10-28g Outside (e -) 0.00054858 Nucleus* the coulomb (C) is the SI unit of ChargeTable 2.2 (p. 53)Atomic Definitions I: Symbols, Isotopes,NumbersXAZX = Atomic symbol of the element, or element symbolA = The Mass number; A = Z + N Z = The Atomic


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