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OCC ENV 101 - The Clean Air Act and Controlling Air Pollution

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AIRSlide 2History of Legislation1960’s Amendments1970 AmendmentsState Requirements – 1970, Title ISlide 71977 & 1990 AmendmentsSlide 9Criteria Air PollutantsNonattainmentLevels of NonattainmentOffsetsTitle II Mobile SourcesMore Cars on the RoadSlide 16New Solutions in 1990Slide 18Title III Air toxics or hazardous pollutantsTitle IV Acid RainSlide 21Title V Permit ProgramTitle VI Stratospheric OzoneSlide 24Title VIITitle VIII - IXEnd Legislation/Begin Sampling & Remediation TechniquesSampling and Analysis of EmissionsSlide 29Monitoring ProcessCalibrationQuality AssuranceThe Gravimetric ApproachSlide 34Carbon Monoxide MeasurementSlide 36OzoneNitrogen oxideWhere Samples are TakenNew SourcesIsokinetic SamplingGrab TechniqueIntegrated SamplingContinuous SamplingAir Pollution Control TechniquesProcess ChangeEmission AllowancesSlide 48Control Equipment for Gaseous EmissionsAdsorptionAbsorptionCondensationCombustionRemoving ParticulatesAIRThe Clean Air Act and Controlling Air PollutionHistory of Legislation•Original CAA of 1955 predates the EPA by 15 years•It authorized technical and financial assistance to states•Amendments were made in the 60’s, in 1970, 1977, and most recently in 19901960’s Amendments•Amendments in the 60’s granted federal authority over vehicle emissions•In 1970 requirements for national standards of ambient air quality were established NAAQS – w/ separate standards for new cars & stationary sources1970 Amendments•In 1970 air toxics were added as a new category of pollutants not covered under the original standards•The National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants or NESHAP•Substances included arsenic, asbestos, benzene, beryllium, mercury, radionuclides, radon 222, and vinyl chlorideState Requirements – 1970, Title I•States were required to draw up state implementation plans – SIPs •SIPs or State Implementation Plans are a collection of regulations a state will put into place to achieve the goals of the CAA•These detail how ambient air standards would be met in each “air quality control region”•The plan must include an inventory of all present sources and operating standards for all new development•The EPA oversees the individual states’ plans and will take over enforcement if the state’s plan is unacceptable1977 & 1990 Amendments•The 1977 amendment stated that new facilities could be built in an area that was not meeting standards if existing sources could reduce their pollution•The original act was just 50 pages long •The 1990 amendments are close to 800 pages!•The 1990 amendments addressed new issues such as acid rain emissions and moves to preserve the stratospheric ozone layer•It established a system of tradable emission creditsCriteria Air Pollutants•Primary standards – maximum ambient concentrations for the protection of the public health•Secondary standards – levels acceptable to protect the public welfareNonattainment•Not meeting the EPA’s primary standards•90 million Americans, 35% of the population live in nonattainment areas (mostly in urban areas)Levels of Nonattainment•Range from marginal to extreme•Set for each of the criteria air pollutants •The EPA tailors cleanup plans to the severity of the problem and sets goals that must be met or even stricter requirements will be enforcedOffsets•When a company wants to expand•The effect of new pollution sources must be offset by reductions elsewhere within the company or somewhere in the nonattainment areaTitle IIMobile Sources •Cars produce 60-80% less pollution than they did in the 1960’s•However, automobiles still release over half of the smog-forming VOC’s and nitrogen oxides•Motor vehicles emit 90% of the CO found in urban airMore Cars on the Road•In 1970 Americans traveled 1 trillion miles•Today we drive 4 trillion miles a year•Public transportation and car pooling have not been embraced by the general population•Removing lead from gasoline actually increased the amount of VOC’s released•Pollution control devices, added to cars in 1970, were only designed to function for 50,000 milesNew Solutions in 1990•Cleaner fuels•Auto inspection requirements•Removing sulfur from diesel fuel•Reformulated fuels with less VOC’s such as benzene•Oxygenated fuels in cold areas to aid in more complete combustion•Detergents in gasoline prevents build-up of engine deposits which hamper efficient operation•Development of alternative fuel sources such as alcohol, liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas•Vapor recovery nozzles at gas stationsTitle IIIAir toxics or hazardous pollutants•Benzene is released by motor vehicles•Area emitter - Many small stationary sources include gas stations, paint shops and dry cleaners•Major emitter - Chemical factories and coal-burning power plants are considered large stationary sourcesTitle IVAcid Rain•Coal burning power plants in the Midwest and the Northeast are the primary source•Coal from these regions has a much higher sulfur content•Under Title IV, plants must have continuous emissions monitoring systems•A system of emission allowances has been imposed•These allowances can be traded or sold nationwide•Bonus allowances are given to companies installing clean coal technology or using renewable energy sourcesTitle VPermit Program•Permits are required by all major sources of air pollution and some smaller polluters, both for operating plants & new plants•They include information on the type of pollutants emitted, how they’re controlled and how they will be monitored•The EPA has the authority to fine violatorsTitle VIStratospheric Ozone•1978 – propellants in aerosol can were banned•1990 – schedule set for the phasing out of ozone-destroying chemicals•The EPA has issued allowances for these substances in the mean time•Recycling and labeling of these materials is required•Service and maintenance of car air conditioners is strictly regulated•New substitute products are being tested before being put into useTitle VII•Covers enforcement provisionsTitle VIII - IX•Miscellaneous topics•Greenhouse gases•International issues•Disadvantaged business concernsEnd Legislation/Begin Sampling & Remediation TechniquesSampling and Analysis of Emissions•Ambient monitoring data allows us to see trends in air quality over time•Provides baseline information•Helps in developing computer models•Help predict potential

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