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Select a Country India Click to enlarge IntroductionGeographyPeopleGovernmentEconomyCommunicationsTransportationMilitaryTransnational Issues Home Reference Maps Appendixes Print-Friendly PageIn general, information available as of 1 January 2003was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2003.This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003Definition Field Listing Rank OrderLegend: Introduction IndiaTop of Page6/13/04 4:56 PMCIA - The World Factbook -- IndiaPage 1 of 12http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/in.htmlBackground:The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world, goes back at least 5,000 years. Aryan tribes from the northwest invaded about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkish in 12th were followed by European traders, beginning in the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism under Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU led to independence in 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. Fundamental concerns in India include the ongoing dispute with Pakistan over Kashmir, massive overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic and religious strife, all this despite impressive gains in economic investment and output. Geography IndiaTop of PageLocation:Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan Geographic coordinates:20 00 N, 77 00 E Map references:AsiaArea:3,287,590 sq km 2,973,190 sq km 314,400 sq km total:land:water:Area - comparative:slightly more than one-third the size of the US Land boundaries: 14,103 km Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km total:border countries:Coastline:7,000 km Maritime claims: 24 NM 12 NM 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin 200 NM contiguous zone:territorial sea:continental shelf:exclusive economic zone:Climate:varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north Terrain:upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north Elevation extremes:Indian Ocean 0 m lowest point:6/13/04 4:56 PMCIA - The World Factbook -- IndiaPage 2 of 12http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/in.htmlKanchenjunga 8,598 m highest point:Natural resources:coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land Land use:54.35% 2.66% 42.99% (1998 est.) arable land:permanent crops:other:Irrigated land:590,000 sq km (1998 est.) Natural hazards:droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes Environment - current issues:deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources Environment - international agreements:Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling none of the selected agreements party to:signed, but not ratified:Geography - note:dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes People IndiaTop of PagePopulation:1,049,700,118 (July 2003 est.) Age structure:32.2% (male 173,973,350; female 163,979,116) 63% (male 342,620,712; female 319,259,867) 4.8% (male 25,281,756; female 24,585,317) (2003 est.) 0-14 years:15-64 years:65 years and over:Median age: 24.1 years 24.1 years 24.2 years (2002) total:male:female:Population growth rate:1.47% (2003 est.) Birth rate:23.28 births/1,000 population (2003 est.) Death rate:8.49 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.) Net migration rate:6/13/04 4:56 PMCIA - The World Factbook -- IndiaPage 3 of 12http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/in.html-0.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.) Sex ratio: 1.05 male(s)/female 1.06 male(s)/female 1.07 male(s)/female 1.03 male(s)/female 1.07 male(s)/female (2003 est.) at birth:under 15 years:15-64 years:65 years and over:total population:Infant mortality rate: 59.59 deaths/1,000 live births 58.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) 60.23 deaths/1,000 live births total:female:male:Life expectancy at birth:63.62 years 62.92 years 64.37 years (2003 est.) total population:male:female:Total fertility rate:2.91 children born/woman (2003 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:0.8% (2001 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:3.97 million (2001 est.) HIV/AIDS - deaths:310,000 (2001 est.) Nationality: Indian(s) Indian noun:adjective:Ethnic groups:Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000) Religions:Hindu 81.3%, Muslim 12%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other groups including Buddhist, Jain, Parsi 2.5% (2000) Languages:English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write 59.5% 70.2% 48.3% (2003 est.) definition:total population:male:female: Government IndiaTop of Page6/13/04 4:56 PMCIA - The World Factbook -- IndiaPage 4 of 12http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/in.htmlCountry name: Republic of India India conventional long form:conventional short form:Government type:federal republic Capital:New Delhi Administrative divisions:28 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*,


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